Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae 2020-05-07T10:39:10+02:00 Piotr Strzyż Open Journal Systems <p><em style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.87); font-family: &amp;quot; noto sans&amp;quot;,-apple-system,blinkmacsystemfont,&amp;quot;segoe ui&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;roboto&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;oxygen-sans&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;ubuntu&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;cantarell&amp;quot;,&amp;quot;helvetica neue&amp;quot;,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: italic; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae</em><span style="display: inline !important; float: none; background-color: #ffffff; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.87); font-family: 'Noto Sans',-apple-system,BlinkMacSystemFont,'Segoe UI','Roboto','Oxygen-Sans','Ubuntu','Cantarell','Helvetica Neue',sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 25px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;"> is a peer-reviewed (Double-Blind Peer Reviews) journal edited and annually published in the English language&nbsp; by the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, intended for an international audience. </span>The subject matter of the journal is historical archaeology, from antiquity to modern times. Preference is given to issues connected with the history of material culture, arms and armour, architecture, man and nature and the history of textiles<strong>.</strong></p> <p>ISSN: <strong>0860-0007</strong></p> <p>DOI: <strong>10.23858/FAH</strong></p> <p>Articles are published in the following languages: <strong>English, German</strong><br>Abstracts: <strong>English</strong><br>Frequency of publishing: <strong>annual</strong></p> With or without Respect? Treatment of Post-mortem Remains of the Dead in the Course of Post-funeral Interferences at Czarnówko in Pomerania 2020-05-07T10:39:07+02:00 Kalina Skóra <p>Cemeteries of the Wielbark Culture are to a different degree affected by a practice of grave opening. The arrangement of bone remains in the grave is still a basic tool to assess the time interval between the burial and the interference. On the other hand, an assessment of the manner in which the dead body or the skeleton was treated is a premise for defining relationships between perpetrators of the disturb- ance and the dead. Thus, it can also inform us about intentions which motivated the perpetrators. In this paper it is attempted to discuss the necropolis in Czarnówko from this point of view. Research opportunities and limitations resulting from the state of preservation of archaeological sources were dealt with. Furthermore, findings were referred to other cemeteries of the Wielbark Culture.</p> 2019-12-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) The Bones Have Been Cast. Away. The Attitude of Inhabitants of Chartered Stargard to the Remains of Their Predecessors from Early Middle Ages 2020-05-07T10:39:08+02:00 Marcin Majewski <p>The article pertains to the problem of human bone remains from an early medieval cemetery which were re-deposited, mainly in the late Middle Ages. The reason for such practices was the change of a location’s purpose through inhabitation and inclusion in a newly founded chartered town. Despite the damage, several dozen burials have been preserved in their anatomical shape. A part of the necropolis was discovered in 2008 during archaeological research in the area of one of the quarters of Stargard’s Old Town (Western Pomerania).</p> 2019-12-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) Cognitive Values of Ossuaries from the Cemetery and the Church of St. Nicholas in Gniew, Poland 2020-05-07T10:39:08+02:00 Tomasz Kozłowski Małgorzata Grupa <p>Exploring churches and cemeteries we often come across human remains placed in one common burial pit. We register the fact, and while working with site material we barely mention excavated ossuaries, not thinking, how much important knowledge can be obtained from them. During exploration seasons in the Church of St. Nicholas in Gniew (Pomerania, Poland) between 2009-2016 we registered various ossuaries from the modern period, placed inside and outside the church. The most significant information was&nbsp; obtained from the ossuary situated in the southern crypt of St. Anne’s Chapel, where, apart from bone relics, we found the most numerous archaeological collection of silk textiles in Poland. This material helps us to define details concerning the time of the individuals’ death. This represents a unique situation in ossuary studies, as usually ossuaries do not provide any additional material data. Human remains themselves help to recreate the history of local populations, as they provide indications of living conditions, pathological changes and the numerical size of the populations under examination. Therefore, archaeologists and anthropologists should work together in these complex sites.</p> 2019-12-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Fasciculi Archeologiae Historicae Gefäßkeramik als Mittel zur Datierung und zur Bestimmung der Nutzungsdauer eines Siedlungsbefundes am Beispiel des frühmittelalterlichen Burgwalls von Lubin 2020-05-07T10:39:08+02:00 Marek Dworaczyk <p>Vessel pottery discovered in the course of research in the early medieval stronghold in Lubin in Wolin Island (Western Pomerania) is remarkable for a strong fragmentation and deformation. However, various methods which were applied to discuss it, including a size classification of vessel shards and a qualitative-quantitative analysis, allowed to properly assess these shards. On the one hand, these criteria allowed to establish the chronology of the vessel assemblage and thus to identify the settlement dynamics of this feature. On the other hand, it became possible to explain reasons behind this considerable fragmentation of the shards. It seems that it resulted from the intensity of development of the stronghold.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) Monastic Waste Disposal in the Late Middle Ages – a Subaquatic Debris and Garbage Dump at the Lakeside Lavatory of Seehausen (Uckermark) 2020-05-07T10:39:08+02:00 Felix Biermann Katrin Frey <p>The Cistercian nunnery of Seehausen (Uckermark), existing from the 13th to the 16th century, offers interesting insights into the organisation of waste disposal in late medieval monasteries. At the shore of the neighbouring lake posts and timbers of a platform werediscovered, and around it hundreds of complete ceramic vessels and numerous other finds were recovered. Moreover, debris which was rich in medieval finds was also dumped at the shore of the lake. The subaquatic finds document two different aspects of monastic waste disposal: part of the material was littered at a lakeside lavatory over a long time, while the other part, together with the debris, was disposed of after a fire disaster in the monastery which is recorded for 1445. The Seehausen find complex, which is currently analysed within the framework of a research project, is discussed as part of the issue of the role of waters for medieval monastic waste management.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) Zero Waste. Some Remarks About Copper Alloy Bowls Recycling in the High and Late Middle Ages 2020-05-07T10:39:08+02:00 Andrzej Janowski <div style="left: 145.468px; top: 459.632px; font-size: 15px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01267);">The article presents the results of interpretation of a parts of a copper alloy bowls from the 10th-13th centuries. The vessels might have been originally used for liturgical ceremonies. We know a lot of bowls fragments from Europe that have been reworked as linings, ferrules or rivets. In all these examples we are dealing with metal recycling.</div> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) Die Wiederverwertung von Rohstoffen und die Verwaltung von Produktionsabfällen in spät- mittelalterlichen Ostseestädten im Spiegel archäologischer Quellen. Einige Bemerkungen am Beispiel ausgewählter Gewerbe. 2020-05-07T10:39:09+02:00 Beata Wywrot-Wyszkowska <p>The processing of worn out wares and repeated use of raw materials were an important part of craftsmanship activity in the Middle Ages. This was the case both with branches which worked with precious or hardly accessible raw materials (e.g. metal, wood) and with such ones which dealt with commonly used materials (among others, leather, textiles, ash). As the economy developed, the problem of management and repeated use of waste became notable. This waste steadily grew in result of craftsmanship activity. Some waste produced by numerous crafts were valuable raw materials for other craftsmanship branches. Part of waste which could not be used again in craftsmanship was applied as building materials. The remaining waste, depending on individual needs and possibilities, was discarded in the area of workshops or plots, or was removed to commonly accessible midden heaps.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Fasciculi Archeologiae Historicae Recycling and Modifications of Firearms in Central Europe during the Medieval and Post-Medieval Period 2020-05-07T10:39:08+02:00 Piotr Strzyż <p>Ancient firearms from both Medieval and Post-Medieval times were fairly often damaged in various ways. Depending on the degree of barrel damage, remains could be reused as material for making new weapons or, if the damage was minor, the weapon could be restored to full combat efficiency. Also in the case of obsolete specimens, attempts were made at modernising them e.g. by placing them on a new stock or mounting a newer type of lock. Lastly, we also see cases of barrel modifications which change the character of the weapon, e.g. from hand-held to light artillery. It seems that all these modifications were aimed at the immediate improvement of castle or town arsenals without investing significant amounts of money. Numerous examples to confirm such recycling are provided by finds of ancient firearms in museum collections in Central Europe.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) Thickness Mapping of Body Armour: a Comparative Study of Eight Breastplates from the National Museum of Slovenia 2020-05-07T10:39:08+02:00 Tomaz Lazar Jakob Kraner <p>There is relatively little information available on the weight and thickness of historical plate armour. The purpose of the present study is to present a detailed analysis of eight torso defences from the National Museum of Slovenia dating from the early 16th to the mid-19th century. Each artefact has been measured in detail and its thickness mapping is presented in graphical diagrams. Furthermore, 3D modelling has been used experimentally to estimate the height of individuals expected to wear the armour. The results illustrate important ideas of armour design during the Middle Ages and the early Modern Period, especially with regard to the increasing effectiveness of firearms.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) Thrown Away or Put Away? Window Glass from the Second Half of the 17th Century Deposited in Tykocin Castle, Poland 2020-05-07T10:39:09+02:00 Magdalena Bis <p>This study is dedicated to window glass discovered in Tykocin castle, deposited in the northern part of the complex, most probably dated to the 1660s. These are remains of windowpanes prepared for the glazing of windows during refurbishment and construction work in the castle building following its destruction in 1656. This paper contains descriptions of those finds including formal, metric and morphological features of the material, structure of the surface and evidence of technical procedures, the character of finds and the reason for the creation of the glass deposit. Finally, the paper discusses the time and circumstances in which the said glass was treated and processed.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) Not Only Socks Were Darned – Secondary Textile Usage as a Source of Material Culture Studies 2020-05-07T10:39:09+02:00 Małgorzata Grupa <p>When we obtain textiles during archaeological explorations (crypts, settlement sites), we do not realize in what forms they had<br>functioned before they were deposited to the ground. In most cases their functions are identified as a result of conservation treatments, and<br>this is the case with the objects described here – silk textiles and kontusz sashes, which belonged to the most expensive elements of the Polish male costumes worn from the 17th century till the 1840s. Therefore, their longevity in various forms is not surprising for researchers. They functioned in families from 40 to 60 years. As they were used for long, and were getting damaged in the course of time, they were repaired carefully, only fragments of them were frequently deposited to the ground with a dead body (frequently cut along its length), and well preserved fragments were donated in last wills to descendants or the Church for liturgical vestments and accessories. Apart from sashes, all kinds of garment were precious not only for heirs, but also for developing paper manufacturing. The article presents problem of secondary use, both silk and woollen textiles, which appear in archaeological material rather rarely.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) Laying Waste in Archaeological Sites. The Problems of Damage to Historical Sacred Objects as a Result of Human Activity 2020-05-07T10:39:09+02:00 Dawid Grupa <p>Excavation works conducted in archaeological sites deliver a great deal of information concerning the material and spiritual culture of past populations. In many instances, for example in settlements and towns, researchers find all kinds of rubbish dumps connected with everyday human activity, which are a rich cognitive source for archaeologists. However, in many cases, before reaching cultural layers, archaeologists have to dig through recent layers disrupting the cognitive value of a site. Cult places, which have an important spiritual role in the life of local societies, like spaces serving for centuries as cemeteries should be exceptions from that rule, but rarely are so. All archaeological explorations conducted in crypts start with clearing work to remove rubbish deposited inside. Depending on easy access to crypts situated beneath church floors, the rubbish includes objects intentionally deposited there by people or collected by wild animals having taken shelter there. Every intrusion affects the microclimate of the interior; collected rubbish also has a destructive character, leading to decay processes. Intensive micro-organic development and internal damp also affects the condition of the church walls standing above the crypt.</p> 2019-12-27T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) Large-surface Rubbish Dumps of the Modern Period. Genesis, Possibilities of Protection, and Research by the Use of Archaeological Methods 2020-05-07T10:39:09+02:00 Paweł Duma <p>This article describes the origin of large-scale landfill in the second half of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century. Policy related to waste management in selected European cities and methods of their utilisation and segregation are discussed. The author later presents the possibilities in the field of archaeology associated with the study of material culture located on surviving excavation sites and discusses the issue and legitimacy of their protection. The article mentions some examples of excavations carried out in recent years, which took place at historic rubbish depots located in France, Australia, and Great Britain. The result of this research was a wealth of information which significantly expanded knowledge not only about the material culture of that time, but also about the importance of local production, imports and the global exchange of goods.</p> 2019-02-22T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 The History of Sewerage in Szczecin in the 19th and 20th Centuries 2020-05-07T10:39:09+02:00 Paweł Gut <p>The utilization of sewage was a serious problem in medieval and early modern Szczecin in Western Pomerania. The basis of this system was latrines, cesspools and drainage channels. In the mid-19th century there were plans to build a sewage disposal system in Szczecin. Its originator was James Friedrich Ludolf Hobrecht. In the 1870s the city gained a functional network for municipal sewage. Alongwith the development of the city the sewer infrastructure was constantly expanded. In 1897 the sewer system consisted of 73.7 km of canalsand collectors, and in 1941 – 300 km. In the years 1914-1928 three sewage treatment plants were built. This municipal infrastructure was severely damaged during World War II.<br><br></p> 2019-12-28T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) Memory of Landscape and Waste. Archaeological Evidence of the Military Intervention in Czechoslovakia in August 1968 According to the Case of the Chrudim Region 2020-05-07T10:39:09+02:00 Jan Musil <p>The paper focuses on hitherto unknown evidence of the presence of invasion forces from the period of the so-called Prague Spring (1968) preserved in a forest area in the southern part of the Chrudim Region (Eastern Bohemia, Czech Republic). In the forest area we found traces of 14 camps of the Polish army comprising visible trenches and foxholes for heavy equipment and men. Field remains are complemented by garbage in the form of cans and small parts of military equipment.</p> 2019-12-28T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) Studies on the Jagellonian and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Artillery (a Side Note on Mikola Volkay’s Artylerya Nasvishskaga zamka). 2020-05-07T10:39:09+02:00 Aleksander Bołdyrew <p>The article descibed the history of the Nieśwież Castle artillery (on a side note of Mikola Volkay’s Artylerya Nasvishskaga zamka / Aртылерыя Hясвiжскага замка). It was the repertory of cannons founded by numerous generations of Radziwiłł house since the firsthalf of the 16th century. The author of the reviewed thesis presents another transformations of the Nieśwież artillery and the main figures of Radziwiłł house, who took part in creation of the repertory, in competitive and comprehensive way. It is worth stressing that this type of research could appreciate being an analysis of not only the weapon’s technical parameters, but also the cultural context, in which the weapon existed. It is especially important in case of expensive things, which were not only useable, but also glamorous.<br><br></p> 2019-12-28T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) A few reflections on the book P. Žákovský, Z. Schenk, Středověké a raně novověké zbraně Přerovska. Zbraně a zbroj od kolapsu Velké Moravy do konce třicetileté války. Přerov, Brno 2017, pp. 175 2020-05-07T10:39:10+02:00 Piotr Strzyż <p>Book Review</p> 2019-12-28T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c)