Kwartalnik Historii Kultury Materialnej http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm <p dir="auto">„Kwartalnik Historii Kultury Materialnej” ukazuje się nieprzerwanie od roku 1953.<br>Pismo ma charakter interdyscyplinarny, integrując zwłaszcza historyków, historyków sztuki, archeologów i etnologów, zainteresowanych dziejami cywilizacji. Publikowane materiały dotyczą głównie materialno-technicznej strony procesów produkcji, konsumpcji i wymiany, zachodzących od pradziejów po wiek XX na ziemiach polskich oraz zagranicą, szczególnie w krajach Europy Środkowej.<br>Na łamach czasopisma zamieszczane są artykuły w języku polskim i w językach kongresowych, zróżnicowane pod względem tematyki oraz formy, a także pozycje o charakterze recenzyjnym i sprawozdawczym.</p> <p dir="auto">PL ISSN: <strong>0023-5881</strong></p> <p dir="auto">e-ISSN:<strong> 2719-6496</strong></p> <p dir="auto">DOI: <strong>10.23858/KHKM</strong></p> <p dir="auto">Punkty MNiSW 2019: <strong>70</strong></p> pl-PL <p>Oświadczam, że przesłany rękopis jest oryginalny, nie został wcześniej opublikowany, jak również nie jest obecnie rozważany do publikacji w innym miejscu. <br>Potwierdzam, że manuskrypt został przeczytany i zatwierdzony przez wszystkich wymienionych Autorów, i że nie ma innych osób, które spełniłyby kryteria autorstwa, ale nie zostały wymienione. Dodatkowo potwierdzam, że kolejność autorów wymienionych w rękopisie została zatwierdzona przez wszystkich Autorów. <br>Potwierdzam, że Autor korespondencyjny jest jedynym kontaktem z Redakcją w procesie redakcyjnym. Odpowiedzialny jest za komunikowanie się z pozostałymi Autorami i informowanie ich o postępach, wprowadzanych korektach oraz o ostatecznym zatwierdzeniu artykułu.</p> kwartalnik@iaepan.edu.pl (Maciej Radomski) ojs@fimagis.pl (Firma Magis) Thu, 22 Oct 2020 00:53:03 +0200 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Tradycje prawne w regulacjach testamentowych w miastach Królestwa Polskiego XIV–XVI wieku: prawo sasko-magdeburskie, prawo kanoniczne i rzymskie oraz prawodawstwo lokalne http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2382 <p><span style="left: 157.244px; top: 754.344px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00313);">The legal traditions influencing testament regulations in the towns </span><span style="left: 227.451px; top: 774.684px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00451);">of the Kingdom of Poland in the 14th–16th c.: </span><span style="left: 175.073px; top: 795.024px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00311);">Magdeburg Law, canon law, Roman law and local legislation</span></p> <p><span style="left: 175.073px; top: 795.024px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00311);"><span style="left: 122.126px; top: 844.862px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.97236);">The article is aimed at exploring the sources of testament regulations in Polish towns which </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 863.869px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00987);">were granted their charters on the basis of the Magdeburg Law in the mid-16th c. Tracing the </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 882.875px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.984584);">evolution of testament regulations, the author highlights the special role of the Magdeburg Law </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 901.881px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.991019);">and local legislation, and demonstrates that despite the lack of testament regulations, the initial </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 920.888px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.996763);">practice was to adapt regulations pertaining to other issues and to apply them by analogy. This </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 939.894px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0058);">is visible in both the evolution of the legal text, which was supplemented with new fragments </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 958.9px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0018);">applying to testamentary inheritance, and the judicature of the High Court of Magdeburg Law </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 977.907px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.973222);">in Cracow. Canon law also had an indisputable impact on testamentary inheritance, by propagat</span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 996.913px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00207);">ing the freedom of disposing of one’s property. This issue is discussed in detail along with the <span style="left: 92.126px; top: 100.807px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.959494);">key regulations of local origin, in order to highlight limitations in bequeathing property to Church </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 119.473px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00399);">institutions. In the analysis of the tradition of Roman law the author stresses that certain simi-</span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 138.139px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.983361);">larities between some local solutions and those found in the Code of Justinian cannot be treated </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 156.805px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.996999);">as proof of the reception of Roman law, especially when local regulations were based on com</span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 175.47px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.985537);">mon sense, and he questions the hypothesis that the rules of making last wills during epidemics </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 194.136px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01415);">resulted from the reception of Roman solutions. He concludes that local regulations, dictated </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 212.802px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.951615);">by practical needs, resulted from customary solutions which preceded the rules recorded in </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 231.468px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.988711);">municipal statutes and privileges. As a model of testament regulations in the “Polish municipal </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 250.134px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.980949);">law” (to use Bart</span><span style="left: 201.716px; top: 250.134px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ł</span><span style="left: 206.115px; top: 250.134px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.987111);">omiej Groicki’s term) the author uses the 1544 draft codification for Cracow, </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 268.8px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02283);">which was finally not put into effect, but contained detailed regulations originating from the </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 287.466px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999709);">earlier laws and customs of the town. </span></span></span></p> Maciej Mikuła Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2382 Mon, 03 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Testament w prawie lubeckim — praktyka na przykładzie Elbląga w XV – początku XVI w. http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2383 <p>Testaments in Lübeck Law. Exemplified with the practice of Elbing from the 15th to the early 16th c.</p> <p><span style="left: 122.126px; top: 178.742px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01721);">The article presents the practice of making testaments in towns governed by the Lübeck </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 197.408px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00247);">Law, illustrated with the mediaeval Elbl</span><span style="left: 345.887px; top: 197.408px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ą</span><span style="left: 352.914px; top: 197.408px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0024);">g (Elbing). The research was based on 145 surviving </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 216.074px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01485);">testaments of burghers from the 15th–early 16th c., five of them from the New Town and the </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 234.74px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.958021);">rest form the Old Town of Elbing. On the basis of those documents, the author describes </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 253.406px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.942954);">the practice of making and authenticating last wills, including also their physical shape, the </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 272.072px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999816);">circumstances (time and place) and the official form. </span><span style="left: 122.124px; top: 290.738px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.994748);">The analysis has revealed that testaments made in Elbing usually followed the same two-</span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 309.404px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.994474);">part scheme. The first part concerned pious bequests (</span><span style="left: 431.929px; top: 309.404px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03468);">ad pias causas</span><span style="left: 524.795px; top: 309.404px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.993934);">), while the second — be-</span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 328.07px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999711);">quests to distant relatives and friends. </span><span style="left: 122.124px; top: 346.737px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.940282);">The article also discusses the issue of choosing testament executors and witnesses. The </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 365.403px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.990972);">analysis has shown that the 145 known last will from Elbing mention 327 executors in total. In </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 384.069px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01136);">1/5 of them at least one of the executors was an alderman. Only some of the aldermen of that </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 402.735px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01842);">period were witnesses, some of them many times. 45 aldermen were noted only once as wit-</span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 421.401px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02835);">nesses, 20 were noted twice and 10 — three times. The same persons acted as witnesses for </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 440.067px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.99102);">many years, holding various offices in the municipality. Those observations may be influenced </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 458.733px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999744);">by the particular body of documents that have survived. </span><span style="left: 122.124px; top: 477.399px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.962863);">The analysis indicates that the making and executing of last wills in Elbing in the researched </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 496.065px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00903);">period was largely controlled by the municipal council. The practice, including the custom of </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 514.731px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01);">writing last wills by clerks, developed over time, resulting in similar forms and arrangements </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 533.396px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01444);">of contents, which in turn led to a certain conventionalization of dispositions. This, however, </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 552.062px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.997091);">did not fully erase the individual character of testators’ dispositions. </span></p> Rafał Kubicki Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2383 Mon, 03 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Źródła dochodów klasztoru klarysek w Gnieźnie pod koniec XVI wieku na podstawie rękopisu „Regestrum 1593” http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2384 <p><span style="left: 177.97px; top: 700.119px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00388);">Sources of income of the convent of Poor Clares in Gniezno </span><span style="left: 131.695px; top: 720.366px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00447);">at the end of the 16th c. on the basis of the “Regestrum 1593” manuscript</span></p> <p><span style="left: 131.695px; top: 720.366px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00447);"><span style="left: 122.126px; top: 769.932px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.990492);">The article surveys rents, dues in kind and other revenues of the convent of Poor Clares in </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 788.847px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00742);">Gniezno from their country and town estates in the late 16th c. The analysis was based on the </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 807.761px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.998101);">oldest register of income kept in the convent, preserved in the manuscript entitled “Regestrum </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 826.676px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999693);">censuum de bonis de bonis Monialium S[anctae] Clarae Gnesnensis 1593”. </span><span style="left: 122.126px; top: 845.59px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.980683);">The manuscript registered dues from serfs from the country estates with which the convent </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 864.505px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00136);">had been endowed upon its foundation by Duke Przemys</span><span style="left: 454.159px; top: 864.505px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ł</span><span style="left: 458.557px; top: 864.505px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00297);"> II in the last decades on the 13th c., </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 883.419px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01061);">and from several other villages granted to the convent by King Sigismundus the Old in 1546. </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 902.334px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02359);">The register also noted dues from the inhabitants of Kostrzyn, a town owned by the convent </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 921.248px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.967867);">since the end of the 13th c. by the privilege of Duke Ladislaus the Elbow-high, and the convent’s </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 940.163px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999847);">income from the town of Gniezno. </span><span style="left: 122.124px; top: 959.077px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0259);">This document, however, is not sufficient to estimate the convent’s real proceeds or the </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 977.993px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02861);">sisters’ living standard, since the data in tables (1–4), representing dues in cash and in kind, </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 996.908px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02594);">cover only one of the many sources of the community’s revenue. It may have been the most <span style="left: 92.126px; top: 100.805px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.991267);">significant source, nevertheless, the Poor Clares, as any other religious community, had others, </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 119.472px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0107);">e.g. bequests, legacies, mass funds, donations and dowries. It seems that the income from the </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 138.14px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.97805);">country and town estates was used to support the nuns and the whole convent community. Judg</span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 156.807px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.943553);">ing from its scale, sheep breeding may have been an additional source of income from the </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 175.475px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.972649);">convent’s farms, since the demand for wool grew in Greater Poland in the 2nd half of the 16th c. </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 194.142px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.962292);">Still, the lack of accounts from that period precludes any estimation of proceeds from that source. </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 212.81px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00926);">Similarly, it is impossible to conclude whether rents and dues in kind were enough to support </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 231.477px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0237);">the community. By analogy to the model of functioning of other orders at that time it can be </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 250.145px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.974497);">supposed that the convent in question was primarily supported by income from its landed estate, </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 268.812px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.961931);">but due to the lack of other documents from the 2nd half of the 16th c. it is impossible to describe </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 287.48px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.988208);">in full the structure of the convent’s revenues or the costs of supporting the community, includ</span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 306.147px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999753);">ing the servants, which at that time probably consisted of 30–40 people counting the servants.</span></span></span></p> Olga Miriam Przybyłowicz Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2384 Mon, 03 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Zapisy mieszczan wołyńskich na rzecz dobroczynności i świątyń różnych wyznań według testamentów z XVII wieku http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2386 <p><span style="left: 151.904px; top: 700.119px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00272);">Charity bequests and legacies to churches of various denominations </span><span style="left: 216.54px; top: 720.366px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00135);">in 17th-century testaments of Volhynian burghers</span></p> <p><span style="left: 216.54px; top: 720.366px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00135);"><span style="left: 122.126px; top: 769.932px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00449);">Volhynian testaments from the 17th c. are a valuable source for research on burghers’ re-</span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 788.847px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01325);">ligiousness and piety. In the 140 available last wills that were analysed for the purpose of the </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 807.761px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.99813);">present article only 50 (i.e. 36%) included charitable and religious bequests, which means that </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 826.676px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0195);">almost 2/3 of the testators did not make any such bequests. The analysed documents suggest </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 845.59px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.979628);">that this happened when testators were not rich, had numerous heirs (especially young children) </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 864.505px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.935509);">or left many debts to be settled. Many testators (especially those belonging to the Orthodox </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 883.419px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00687);">Church) expressed their certainty that the heirs would take care of their funeral and salvation, </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 902.334px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999751);">and would donate some funds for charitable purposes at their own discretion. </span><span style="left: 122.126px; top: 921.248px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.99629);">Volhynian burghers were mostly attached to local churches and made bequests to those in </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 940.163px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02688);">which they wanted to be buried and have masses said for their salvation. The bequests were </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 959.077px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.976588);">usually small sums (5–10 Polish zloties), debts collectable from third parties, or money that was </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 977.993px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.933616);">to be paid by heirs in exchange for some property transferred to them. The largest bequests </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 996.908px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01568);">(200–300 Polish zloties) were made by rich Catholic women. The most common forms were</span> <span style="left: 92.126px; top: 100.808px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.962865);">egacies in kind (wheat, food, livestock), movables (valuable vessels, paintings, books, tapestries, </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 119.474px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999903);">garments) and immovables (houses, farmland, meadows, orchards). </span><span style="left: 122.125px; top: 138.142px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.945524);">Testators followed the assumption that their support of religious institutions might help </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 156.809px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.990433);">their salvation. With the same intention they bequeathed money for masses for their souls, ask</span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 175.477px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.998018);">ing heirs or executors to make sure they would be said. They also left legacies to hospitals run </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 194.144px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999984);">by Catholic or Orthodox churches, supported the poor, or gave alms at funerals, thus fulfilling </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 212.812px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.981842);">the Christian duty to help others and deserving their prayers. Such bequests were significant for </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 231.479px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999841);">the functioning of local religious institutions. </span><span style="left: 122.125px; top: 250.145px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00272);">The bequests discussed in this article are symptomatic of both testamentary and religious </span><span style="left: 92.126px; top: 268.811px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999874);">customs of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. </span><br></span></p> Natalia Biłous Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2386 Mon, 03 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Gdańskie testamenty reciproce i praktyka tworzenia inwentarzy mienia w XVII–XVIII w. http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2387 <p><span style="left: 147.044px; top: 773.897px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.991424);">Reciproce </span><span style="left: 221.878px; top: 773.897px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00256);">testaments in Gda</span><span style="left: 347.615px; top: 773.897px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif;">ń</span><span style="left: 356.365px; top: 773.897px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00351);">sk and the origin of probate inventories</span><span style="left: 323.885px; top: 794.302px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00375);">in the 17th–18th c.</span></p> <p><span style="left: 323.885px; top: 794.302px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00375);"><span style="left: 122.126px; top: 844.337px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01593);">The article focuses on two crucial issues connected with property inheritance in Gda</span><span style="left: 665.407px; top: 844.337px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ń</span><span style="left: 673.324px; top: 844.337px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999123);">sk </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 863.409px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01908);">(Danzig) in the 17th–18th c. First, it discusses spouses’ reciprocal last wills (</span><span style="left: 588.782px; top: 863.409px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00939);">reciproce </span><span style="left: 653.114px; top: 863.409px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999854);">testa-</span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 882.48px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00887);">ments) as a form widely used in this city and its impact on the practice of establishing the net </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 901.553px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00941);">value of the inheritance. Second, it explains the origin of the probate inventory and the popu</span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 920.624px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01024);">larization of the particular formal characteristics of this document throughout Europe. On the </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 939.695px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01282);">basis of thousands of testaments and probate inventories of Gda</span><span style="left: 501.531px; top: 939.695px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ń</span><span style="left: 509.447px; top: 939.695px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01621);">sk burghers from the period </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 958.766px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.944408);">between the last quarter of the 16th c. to the early 19th c. surviving in the State Archives </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 977.838px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.964498);">in Gda</span><span style="left: 137.098px; top: 977.838px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ń</span><span style="left: 145.184px; top: 977.838px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.954625);">sk it is possible to analyse in detail how those legal instruments developed in the </span><span style="left: 92.1282px; top: 996.91px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00009);">early-modern era.</span> <span style="left: 122.126px; top: 100.821px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.984293);">In the light of the Kulm Law (</span><span style="left: 310.435px; top: 100.821px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.98372);">ius culmense</span><span style="left: 391.358px; top: 100.821px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1);">, </span><span style="left: 398.852px; top: 100.821px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.975395);">Kulmer Recht</span><span style="left: 485.929px; top: 100.821px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.987779);">), which was applied in Gda</span><span style="left: 661.447px; top: 100.821px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ń</span><span style="left: 669.364px; top: 100.821px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999659);">sk, </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 119.487px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.998939);">a </span><span style="left: 102.833px; top: 119.487px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00939);">reciproce </span><span style="left: 166.005px; top: 119.487px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.992285);">testament drawn up by spouses made it possible to enlarge the portion of the inher-</span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 138.152px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.97696);">itance due to the widow (or widower), or to another heir indicated, or to make a charity bequest. </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 156.818px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.976157);">This legal instrument allowed to keep up to 7/8 of the worth of the spouses’ property and served </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 175.484px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.943601);">to protect the integrity of their workshops. The Kulm Law, following the Flemish law, pro-</span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 194.15px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01776);">tected the interests of widows, and did not exclude women — widows or daughters — from </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 212.816px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00693);">inheriting, treating them on a par with male heirs. A key issue in inheritance proceedings was </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 231.482px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.994255);">the evaluation of property and of its portions due to particular heirs, some of whom were often </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 250.148px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.989363);">minors. This required a socially accepted legal instrument, i.e. a reliable official probate inven-</span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 268.814px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.99978);">tory, which was the basis of evaluating the property and its portions going to individual heirs. </span><span style="left: 122.126px; top: 287.48px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01699);">On the basis of the documents surviving in the State Archives in Gda</span><span style="left: 567.689px; top: 287.48px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ń</span><span style="left: 575.605px; top: 287.48px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01817);">sk, and published </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 306.146px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.966531);">comparative materials concerning various regions of early-modern Poland and Europe, the </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 324.812px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.988297);">author claims that the widespread knowledge of the rules of drawing probate inventory, as well </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 343.478px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.940668);">as the characteristic formal features of probate inventories (the subject order, the balance of </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 362.143px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.987146);">values) had resulted from adopting the book-keeping techniques developed since the 14th c. by </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 380.809px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.950238);">Italian merchants. Theoretical knowledge and practical tips about drawing an inventory and </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 399.475px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01473);">a balance sheet were systematized by Fra Luca Pacioli de Burgo (1445–1514?), a Franciscan </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 418.141px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.932863);">and a mathematics professor, in 1494 in </span><span style="left: 357.044px; top: 418.141px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.953712);">Summa de Arithmetica, Geometrica, Proportioni et </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 436.807px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04675);">Proportionalita</span><span style="left: 191.536px; top: 436.807px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.914684);">. In treatise XI (</span><span style="left: 298.147px; top: 436.807px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.984327);">Particularis de computis et scripturis</span><span style="left: 541.483px; top: 436.807px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.939577);">) Pacioli described the </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 455.473px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.983648);">Venetian method of drawing up an inventory and of keeping basic account books, also present</span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 474.139px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00756);">ing the profit-and- oss account and the balance of accounts, which were the beginnings of the </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 492.805px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.971449);">future balance sheet. Thanks to the development of printing, Pacioli’s ideas were quickly </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 511.471px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02158);">popularized throughout Europe. One of the best works devoted to book-keeping available in </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 530.137px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999811);">Gda</span><span style="left: 118.503px; top: 530.137px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ń</span><span style="left: 126.42px; top: 530.137px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.003);">sk at that time was Sebastian Gamersfelder’s </span><span style="left: 415.103px; top: 530.137px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00683);">Buchhalten durch zwei Bücher nach italia</span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 548.803px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.984893);">nicher Art und Weise</span><span style="left: 224.71px; top: 548.803px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00141);"> (published in 1570). The widely described rules of drawing up a probate </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 567.47px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.994991);">inventory and a balance sheet were adopted by Dutch, English and German merchants, as well </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 586.138px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02959);">as book-keeping teachers and notaries all over Europe, who adapted them to local legal and </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 604.805px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.987332);">social realities (including the level of literacy and arithmetic skills). This also had an impact on </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 623.473px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999756);">the standardization of probate inventories in the 17th and 18th c. </span><span style="left: 122.124px; top: 642.139px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00132);">This article is part of research related to the preparation of a monograph on early-modern </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 660.806px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999817);">probate inventories in Gda</span><span style="left: 260.524px; top: 660.806px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ń</span><span style="left: 268.44px; top: 660.806px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00005);">sk.</span><br></span></p> Edmund Kizik Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2387 Mon, 03 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Obraz kartograficzny miast Królestwa Polskiego 1815–1836 http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2388 <p><span style="left: 138.612px; top: 109.924px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00327);">The cartographic representation of the towns of the Kingdom of Poland</span><span style="left: 341.308px; top: 129.925px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00171);">in 1815–1836</span></p> <p><span style="left: 341.308px; top: 129.925px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00171);"><span style="left: 122.126px; top: 178.742px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.992136);">The years1815–1836 were very important for the cartography of Polish towns. As regards </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 197.408px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02846);">the technique of map production, Warsaw stood out against other towns, due to the fact that </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 216.074px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00619);">until the mid-19th c. the capital was mapped by the topographic corps of the army, which had </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 234.74px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999653);">at their disposal the most advanced technologies and the best specialist. </span><span style="left: 122.126px; top: 253.408px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00644);">A crucial development for the surveying and mapping of Polish towns was the establish-</span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 272.074px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00723);">ment of the Town Committee within the structure of the Government Commission of Internal </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 290.74px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00235);">Affairs and Police on 4th January 1820. The committee was to supervise surveying and carto</span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 309.405px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02235);">graphic works. Its clerks prepared a new surveying instruction, published on 2nd September </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 328.071px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00006);">1820; its next instruction, published on 28th March 1823, was in effect until 1836. It provided </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 346.737px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999752);">for the preparation of two maps of each town, at a scale of 1:1500 and 1:5000. </span><span style="left: 122.126px; top: 365.403px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.988349);">Most of the large-scale maps prepared in the 1820s and 1830s were situation maps or situ-</span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 384.069px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.977615);">ation-regulation maps, primarily reflecting data on real estate and development, sometimes with </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 402.735px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01);">plans of regulating some parts or particular streets. Very few regulation maps of whole towns </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 421.401px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999761);">were produced at that time, an example being “The plan of Praga”, with a whole new network </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 440.067px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999647);">of streets and squares. </span><span style="left: 122.126px; top: 458.734px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.991776);">Of the surviving large-scale maps from the Kingdom of Poland, particular attention is due </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 477.4px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.994547);">to maps of those towns that were granted municipal right at that time. The growth of urbaniza-</span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 496.066px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.987161);">tion, especially in the western part of the Kingdom, was greatly stimulated by industrialization, </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 514.732px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01688);">particularly by the development of textile industry. Between 1815 and 1830 municipal rights </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 533.398px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.97415);">were granted to six towns of the region: Babiak, Ozorków, Aleksandrów, Zdu</span><span style="left: 570.784px; top: 533.398px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ń</span><span style="left: 578.66px; top: 533.398px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.968228);">ska Wola, Zgierz, </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 552.064px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.998746);">Konstantynów and Tomaszów Mazowiecki.</span></span></p> Bartoszewicz Agnieszka, Bartoszewicz Henryk Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2388 Mon, 03 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Dzieje zakupu Czwórki Józefa Chełmońskiego do Muzeum Narodowego w Krakowie http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2390 <p><span style="left: 212.352px; top: 458.097px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00359);">The purchase of Józef Che</span><span style="left: 399.638px; top: 458.097px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif;">ł</span><span style="left: 404.5px; top: 458.097px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999926);">mo</span><span style="left: 426.861px; top: 458.097px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif;">ń</span><span style="left: 435.611px; top: 458.097px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.99913);">ski’s </span><span style="left: 472.256px; top: 458.097px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03003);">Four-in-hand </span><span style="left: 262.724px; top: 478.098px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00322);">for the National Museum in Cracow</span></p> <p><span style="left: 262.724px; top: 478.098px; font-size: 17.5px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00322);"><span style="left: 122.126px; top: 526.916px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.982369);">At the beginning of October 1879, as part of the celebrations of Józef Ignacy Kraszewski’s </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 545.583px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.979971);">(1812–1887) jubilee, the painter Henryk Siemiradzki (1843–1902) donated his work </span><span style="left: 619.977px; top: 545.583px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00768);">Pochodnie </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 564.251px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00671);">Nerona</span><span style="left: 139.039px; top: 564.251px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10673);"> (</span><span style="left: 148.764px; top: 564.251px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.955817);">Nero’s Torches</span><span style="left: 240.607px; top: 564.251px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01154);">) to the Sukiennice gallery.</span><span style="left: 417.042px; top: 564.251px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01244);">Many Polish painters soon followed in his </span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 582.917px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00137);">footsteps, thus founding the collection of the future National Museum in Cracow. The first di</span><span style="left: 92.1266px; top: 601.582px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00982);">rector of the Museum (in the years 1883–1900) was W</span><span style="left: 442.544px; top: 601.582px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ł</span><span style="left: 446.942px; top: 601.582px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999627);">adys</span><span style="left: 475.965px; top: 601.582px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ł</span><span style="left: 480.363px; top: 601.582px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999406);">aw </span><span style="left: 503.204px; top: 601.582px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">Ł</span><span style="left: 512.875px; top: 601.582px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0046);">uszczkiewicz (1828–1900), </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 620.248px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00994);">one of Cracow’s most illustrious personages at that time, an art historian, painter and teacher. </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 638.914px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999774);">Under his directorship the Museum began to buy pictures by contemporary Polish painters. </span><span style="left: 122.124px; top: 657.58px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01039);">Based on documents from the Museum archive, the article presents the circumstances of </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 676.246px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00869);">purchasing the painting </span><span style="left: 246.066px; top: 676.246px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.984898);">Czwórka</span><span style="left: 302.373px; top: 676.246px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09782);"> (</span><span style="left: 312.056px; top: 676.246px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.032);">Four-in-hand</span><span style="left: 397.935px; top: 676.246px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01531);">) by one of the most famous and most valued </span><span style="left: 92.125px; top: 694.912px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04638);">Polish artists, Józef Che</span><span style="left: 263.85px; top: 694.912px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ł</span><span style="left: 268.874px; top: 694.912px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0619);">mo</span><span style="left: 290.358px; top: 694.912px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ń</span><span style="left: 298.9px; top: 694.912px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04472);">ski (1849–1914). This large-format oil-on-canvas work </span><span style="left: 92.1234px; top: 713.578px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.957753);">(275 × 660 cm), showing a four-in hand driven with dash by a Ukrainian peasant (fig. 1), is one </span><span style="left: 92.1234px; top: 732.244px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00581);">of the top achievements of naturalism in Polish art. Painted in Paris in 1881, it was purchased </span><span style="left: 92.1234px; top: 750.91px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.987265);">from the artist for 3000 silver roubles in 1899. Ever since then, it has been exhibited in Sukien</span><span style="left: 92.1234px; top: 769.576px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.981254);">nice, the oldest historical location of the National Museum, and it is now one of the gems of the </span><span style="left: 92.1234px; top: 788.242px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999871);">Museum’s Gallery of 19th-Century Polish Painting</span>.</span></p> Sławomir A. Mróz Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2390 Mon, 03 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Marcin Łukasz Majewski, Cech rzeźników piotrkowskich w XVI–XVIII wieku, Warszawa 2020 [notka] http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2391 <p>Recenzja z publikacji <span style="left: 92.1212px; top: 406.273px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.983456);">przedstawiającej działalność cechu zaopatruj</span><span style="left: 287.566px; top: 406.273px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ą</span><span style="left: 294.538px; top: 406.273px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.975463);">cego miasto w jeden z podstawowych produktów spo</span><span style="left: 624.489px; top: 406.273px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ż</span><span style="left: 631.46px; top: 406.273px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.993361);">ywczych </span><span style="left: 92.1196px; top: 424.969px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999863);">— mi</span><span style="left: 128.627px; top: 424.969px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ę</span><span style="left: 135.653px; top: 424.969px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00005);">so, na podstawie </span><span style="left: 359.578px; top: 443.663px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02707);">akt cechowych z lat 1550–1823.</span></p> Andrzej Klonder Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2391 Mon, 03 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Paul Friedeborn, Opis miasta Szczecina, oprac. i przekł. Agnieszka Borysowska, Warszawa 2016 [notka] http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2392 <p><span style="left: 122.123px; top: 724.013px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01538);">Omówienie edycji dzieła Paul'a Friedeborn'a (1572–1637) - opisu jego rodzinnego miasta Szczecina w XVII stuleciu</span>.</p> Andrzej Klonder Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2392 Mon, 03 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Raimo Pullat, Tõnis Liibek, Oma alma mater, it otsimas. Enne teist maailmasőda Europaa tehnikakőrgkoolidest vőrsunud eesti insenerid ja architekdit [notka] http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2393 <p><span style="left: 439.187px; top: 819.819px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.960434);">Omówienie publikacji autorstwa badaczy estońskich - Raimo Pullata i Tõnisa Liibeka</span>,<span style="left: 472.652px; top: 819.819px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.975116);"> stanowi</span><span style="left: 532.282px; top: 819.819px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ą</span><span style="left: 539.231px; top: 819.819px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.974127);">cej kompendium wiedzy </span><span style="left: 92.1295px; top: 838.761px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.99579);">o kszta</span><span style="left: 136.369px; top: 838.761px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ł</span><span style="left: 140.768px; top: 838.761px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.997222);">towaniu si</span><span style="left: 206.13px; top: 838.761px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ę</span><span style="left: 213.156px; top: 838.761px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.995916);"> i dokonaniach paru pokole</span><span style="left: 384.847px; top: 838.761px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ń</span><span style="left: 392.763px; top: 838.761px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.993768);"> esto</span><span style="left: 422.06px; top: 838.761px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ń</span><span style="left: 429.976px; top: 838.761px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.996974);">skiej inteligencji technicznej, od schy</span><span style="left: 667.172px; top: 838.761px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif;">ł</span><span style="left: 671.571px; top: 838.761px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999579);">ku </span><span style="left: 92.1279px; top: 857.704px; font-size: 15.8333px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999822);">wieku XIX po rok 1939.</span></p> Maria Bogucka Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2393 Mon, 03 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Maria Dąbrowska (7 VI 1943 – 29 XI 2019) — wspomnienie http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2394 <p>Wspomnienie</p> Magdalena Bis, Wojciech Bis Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ http://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/2394 Mon, 03 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0200