Sprawozdania Archeologiczne http://journals.iaepan.pl/sa <p><em>Sprawozdania Archeologiczne </em>is a reviewed polish archeological journal, published in english language, since 1952 by Ośrodek Instytutu Archeologii i Etnologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk. Main scopes of journal are dedicated to international community of archeologists and also other people interested in prehistory of Ancient and New World.</p> Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk en-US Sprawozdania Archeologiczne 0081-3834 Barbara Burchard and studies on the chronology of the Funnel Beaker culture in Lesser Poland http://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1707 <p>Barbara Burchard (1930-2016) was one of the most important researchers in the field of Funnel Beaker culture (FBC) in south-eastern Poland. In conducted studies she managed to highlight certain crucial problems related to the Middle Eneolithic period: (1) the origins of the FBC in Lesser Poland, (2) the process known as Badenisation, and (3)/ the reception of the megalithic burial rite. Therefore, it is worth looking at her research achievements from the perspective of present-day studies on the Neolithic in south-eastern Poland. The results obtained by Burchard remain largely valid today, as does the list of unsolved problems specified by her.</p> Piotr Włodarczak Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode.pl 2020-04-17 2020-04-17 72 1 11 29 10.23858/SA/72.2020.1.001 Janusz Kruk’s settlement archaeology: inspirations and determinants http://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1724 <p>The settlement network and material remains of the south-eastern group of the Funnel Beaker culture play an important role in Janusz Kruk’s settlement archaeology. In the context of that group and the entire culture, the settlement complex in Bronocice may be considered as the icing on the cake. This is a sufficient reason to attempt a reconstruction of that trend in research in the present volume.</p> <p>I have already proposed an interpretation of Janusz Kruk’s settlement archaeology and its selected elements in several papers (Kadrow 1992; 2010; 2013; Kadrow and Machnik 2001). This time, I am going to examine its determinants and intellectual inspirations.</p> Sławomir Romuald Kadrow Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode.pl 2020-04-18 2020-04-18 72 1 3`1 45 10.23858/SA/72.2020.1.002 Issues of Spatial Distribution of the Funnel Beaker Culture Barrows Cemeteries in Southeastern Poland http://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1722 <p>Varied barrow cemeteries were one of the most symptomatic attributes of the Funnel Beaker culture community in the 4<sup>th</sup> Millennium BC. These structures have been well recognized in the North West and Central Europe. This article&nbsp; shows several patterns of Funnel Beaker culture barrow cemeteries placement related to the natural landscape in southeastern Poland. Based on GIS spatial and statistical testing, it is reasonable to indicate possible rules of their functioning in the loess areas.&nbsp;</p> Dariusz Król Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode.pl 2020-04-18 2020-04-18 72 1 47 62 10.23858/SA/72.2020.1.003 Cultural and settlement changes in the second half of the 4th Millennium BC in the area between Bug, Dniester and Prut rivers http://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1718 <p><span style="font-family: 'Courier New', serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span lang="en">As part of the project NCN Opus 8 UMO 204/15/B/HS3/02486 “Between The East and the West. Dynamics of Social Changes from the Eastern Carpathians to the Dnieper in the 4th – beginning of the of 3th Millennium BC”, research was conducted on the relationship between Funnel Beaker Culture and Tripolye Culture, as well as the chronology and extent of the Funnel Beaker Culture in Western Ukraine and northern Moldova.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: 'Courier New', serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span lang="en">The literature on the subject emphasizes the migration of the CII Tripolye culture from south to north. A particularly interesting issue is the presence of imports of Funnel Beaker Culture in the environment of the Moldovan group Brinzeni, and especially from which regions its </span></span></span><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span lang="en-GB">oecumens</span></span></span><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span lang="en"> they come from. Because along with the ceramics of the Funnel Beaker Culture in the Brinzeni group, objects from the Volhyn raw material were also discovered in the literature, Volhynia was highlighted as the area from which these materials foreign to the Tripolye culture may come from. The concept of migration from south to north may explain this issue.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: 'Courier New', serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span lang="en">The discovery of about 150 km north of the Brinzeni group of a stable Funnel Beaker Culture settlement in Kotoryny near Zhydachiv has raised a number of questions about this problem. Also, the identification in the Western Volhyn region of the Tripolye Culture settlement in Novomalin-Podobanka near Ostrog, from which vessels with the characteristics of the Brinzeni group and Funnel Beaker Culture come from, shows that clarifying the relationships between South and North Tripolye Culture communities requires further research.</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-family: 'Courier New', serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman', serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span lang="en">The discovery of about 150 km north of the Brinzeni group of a stable Funnel Beaker Culture settlement in Kotoryny near Zhydachiv has raised a number of questions about this problem. Also, the identification in the Western Volhyn region of the Tripolye Culture settlement in Novomalin-Podobanka near Ostrog, from which vessels with the characteristics of the Brinzeni group and Funnel Beaker Culture come from, shows that clarifying the relationships between South and North Tripolye Culture communities requires further research.</span></span></span></span></span></p> Małgorzata Rybicka Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode.pl 2020-04-18 2020-04-18 72 1 63 85 10.23858/SA/72.2020.1.004 Plants of the Funnel Beaker culture in Poland http://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1714 <p>Neolithic communities appeared in Polish territories around the mid-6th millennium BC. However, till the beginning of the 4th millennium BC, they inhabited only small enclaves. Situation of this kind changed within the first half of the 4th millennium BC, when majority of Polish territories was settled by Neolithic groups reflected as the Funnel Beaker culture (TRB). There is a fairly large amount of data on plants cultivated by TRB people. On this ground one can conclude that mainly <em>Triticum dicoccon</em>, <em>T. monococcum</em> and <em>Hordeum vulgare</em> were grown. <em>T. dicoccon</em> and <em>T. monococcum</em> could be sown together. It should be noted that large amounts of weeds typical of cereal fields have been recorded. To determine the economic importance of other cultivars is much more difficult because of their low numbers. Nevertheless, the TRB inventories contain remains of <em>Pisum sativum</em>, <em>Lens culinaris</em>, <em>Linum</em><em> usitatissimum</em> and <em>Papaver</em><em> somniferum</em>.</p> Marek Nowak Maria Lityńska-Zając Magdalena Moskal-del Hoyo Aldona Mueller-Bieniek Magda Kapcia Krzysztof Kotynia Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode.pl 2020-04-17 2020-04-17 72 1 87 114 10.23858/SA/72.2020.1.005 Some remarks on flat graves of south-eastern group of Funnel Beakers Culture http://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1704 <p>So called flat graves of south-eastern group of Funnel Beaker Culture (FBC SE) is a phenomenon underrepresented in archaeological studies of the Eneolithic. Researchers’ focus on “the megalithic idea” in recent decades left other forms of burial largely unexplored. In fact, it seems, that even 70% of graves of FBC SE could be described as latter group. In this study, some comment on localisation within cemeteries, constructions and orientation of graves will be provided, based on sample collected from previously published studies from most of known geographical range of FBC SE. As it will be shown, a problem of flat graves is a complex problem which should be&nbsp; thought on in context of whole FBC SE funerary practices.</p> Tomasz Oberc Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode.pl 2020-04-18 2020-04-18 72 1 115 146 10.23858/SA/72.2020.1.006 Pottery kilns from the Tripolye settlement of Kamenets-Podolskiy, Tatarysky, the 2019 excavation campaign (regarding the issue of evolution of Tripolye pottery kilns) http://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1731 <p>This paper presents two pottery kilns of an archaic construction, which were excavated at the Tripolye BII settlement of Kamenets-Podolskiy, Tatarysky in 2019. The site, dated to the beginning of 4th mil. BC, is referred to Mereshovskaya group of Western Tripolye culture. Analysis of construction details of our kilns compared to similar structures, which are known for other Tripolye sites and outside the Cucuteni-Tripolye cultural complex, made possible the specification of typology of Cucuteni-Tripolye pottery kilns and contribution to the issue of major trends in their evolution.</p> Aleksandr Diachenko Iwona Sobkowiak-Tabaka Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode.pl 2020-04-18 2020-04-18 72 1 147 171 10.23858/SA/72.2020.1.007 Fortified settlements of the Funnel Beaker-Baden phase in the western Little Poland http://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1716 <p>At the end of the fourth millennium BC, in the areas of the western Małopolska, existing Funnel Beaker culture structures south of the Szreniawa river has been disintegrated and replaced by the settlement of allochthonous Baden culture. North of the river, the development of the FBC still continued strongly influenced by the Baden culture leading to the specific form of the syncretic FB-BC. In this period only a few, but very extensive, central settlements surrounded by smaller sites remained active. The most important of them is located settlement Bronocice, dist. Pińczów, fortified in the youngest phase of use. Apart from the Bronocice, only e few other sites, surrounded by ditches, belong to this horizon. Three of them are recognized almost exclusively by non-invasive methods: in Gniazdowice dist. Proszowice, Muniaczkowice, dist. Proszowice, &nbsp;and in Marchocice dist. Miechów. Another site is Miechów, dist. <em>Loco </em>was excavated.</p> Marcin Przybyła Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode.pl 2020-04-18 2020-04-18 72 1 173 195 10.23858/SA/72.2020.1.008 Flint axes from the Funnel Beaker and Funnel Beaker-Baden settlement phases at site 1 in Książnice Wielkie, Proszowice district http://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1732 <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Wykopaliska na miejscu 1 w Książnicach Wielkich prowadzone były w latach 1921–1924 przez Józefa Żurowskiego. Jest to jedno z najważniejszych miejsc kultury pucharów lejkowatych (FBC) w zachodniej Małopolsce. Materiały FBC z elementami Baden zostały opublikowane przez Barbarę Burchard i Annę Eker, a groby kultury Corded Ware - Jan Machnik (Burchard i Eker 1964; Machnik 1964). Artykuł koncentruje się na zagadnieniach związanych z osiami krzemienia odkrytymi w kontekście zespołów FBC i Funnel Beaker-Baden. Jak dotąd nie były przedmiotem szczegółowego opracowania.</span></p> Agnieszka Brzeska-Zastawna Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode.pl 2020-04-18 2020-04-18 72 1 197 211 10.23858/SA/72.2020.1.009 Megalithic Cemeteries of the Funnel Beaker Culture in the Sandomierz Upland http://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1723 <p>In the Sandomierz Upland 39 confirmed or putative cemeteries of the Funnel Beaker Culture have been discovered so far, in addition to 4 burials found within settlements. Archaeological excavations have been conducted on 17 of these cemeteries; and on 8 of them large stone tombs have been discovered. The most common form of the megalithic tombs are very long trapezoids, built along the west-east direction, and with stone casing on their sides, and a large, post-framed room in the eastern, wider part of the trapezoid. The main grave, covered with a mound of earth, could be found behind the room, containing two parallel chambers, or a single tomb, most often with double burials. Large tombs are accompanied by flat graves, usually constructed using stone material.</p> <p>A clear example of funerary practices are deposits of flint tools and items, and a peculiar treatment of bodies discovered on some cemeteries, which might be described as apotropaic and anti-vampire rituals.</p> Marek Florek Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode.pl 2020-04-18 2020-04-18 72 1 213 232 10.23858/SA/72.2020.1.010 Animals in the life of inhabitants of Neolithic settlement at Niedźwiedź http://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1721 <p>The paper presents results of zoological analysis of bone materials retrieved from Funnel Beaker culture features discovered in Niedźwiedź site 1, Comm. Słomniki. The analysis included species and anatomic determinations, as well as the determinations of age, sex, and size of animals. The identified remains included bones of domestic (cattle, goats/sheep, pigs, and dogs) and wild mammals (horse, deer, roe deer, boar, beaver, hare, and small rodents), birds (mallard, common buzzard, and hawfinch), and European pond turtle.</p> Danuta Zofia Makowicz-Poliszot Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode.pl 2020-04-18 2020-04-18 72 1 233 257 10.23858/SA/72.2020.1.011 Unique construction of a megalithic tomb from Stryczowice, Świętokrzyskie Voivodship http://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1715 <p>The cemetery of the Funnel Beaker culture at Stryczowice is situated in the Sandomierz Upland region. Three megalithic tombs and a flat cemetery were discovered and examined. The most well-preserved tomb is about 30 m long, and its plan has a trapezoidal shape. Its stone settings formed a kind of dry-stone wall – a phenomenon on a European scale. In the front part of this tomb, a central grave has been examined, consisting of two stone chests – one at ground level and the other built into the ground. In this second feature, fragments of a male skeleton were discovered. Around the central grave, six burials were uncovered. Each of the megalithic tombs were accompanied by a flat cemetery. Six graves and a stone pavement were excavated. The burial pits were constructed of low, stone chests, covered with pavement. Some of the deceased were equipped with burial goods – collared flasks, a battle-axe, retouched flint blades, and some hematite lumps.</p> Barbara Sałacińska Sławomir Sałaciński Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode.pl 2020-04-18 2020-04-18 72 1 259 276 10.23858/SA/72.2020.1.012 Return to Książnice Wielkie near Kraków http://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1706 <p>In 1964 Barbara Burchard and Anna Eker published a study of the Funnel Beaker culture materials from Książnice Wielkie, located 45 km east of Kraków. These materials were obtained 40 years earlier by Józef Żurowski, a Krakow archaeologist, who conducted large rescue excavations in 1921-1924, discovering the settlement of the Funnel Beaker culture and the Corded Ware culture cemetery. &nbsp;J. Żurowski has never published the results of his research, and B. Burchard and A. Eker is so far the only comprehensive study of the Funnel Beaker culture settlement (Burchard and Eker 1964). The funeral materials of the Corded Ware culture, published by J. Machnik (Machnik 1964, 1966), were also studied. Since then, this site has not been the subject of detailed research and analysis. The huge, still unused, research potential of this site has become the reason for a scientific return to Książnice Wielkie. After almost 100 years of J. Żurowski's field work, the Archaeological Museum in Kraków resumed research. In 2017, magnetic prospecting was carried out, and since 2018 rescue excavations have been conducted in cooperation with the Jagiellonian University. Stone artefacts and radiocarbon analysis of materials obtained in the 1920s are also being studied.</p> Agnieszka Brzeska-Zastawna Albert Zastawny Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode.pl 2020-04-18 2020-04-18 72 1 277 312 10.23858/SA/72.2020.1.013 Funnel Beaker Culture tombs in the eastern part of Wodzisław Hummock http://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1845 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The paper sums up the field research carried out at the complex of ceremonial-funerary sites at Malżyce and Zagaje Stradowskie in the northern part of the western Lesser Poland loess upland. The research revealed differences in construction among chamberless Funnel Beaker Culture (FBC) tombs in western Lesser Poland. The results obtained at these sites were later confirmed by data from other sites explored in recent years. Typological and chronometric studies point towards a similar age of all the distinguished tomb types: around 3650-3350 BC. In addition, a chronological sequence of transformations in the megalithic burial rite of FBC communities is proposed.</p> Paweł Jarosz Piotr Włodarczak Krzysztof Tunia Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode.pl 2020-04-18 2020-04-18 72 1 313 332 10.23858/SA/72.2020.1.014 The First Megalithic Long Barrows of the Funnel Beaker Culture in the Central Greater Poland in Sobota http://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1703 <p>The following paper aim is to present the verification of the probable megalithic long barrows of the Funnel Beaker culture, detected on the LIDAR models. The characteristic shape of structures and their location seem to support such hypothesis. In order to define their actual function and chronology a magnetometric prospection was conducted with the subsequent geological drillings. Also, the archive study of the nearest proximity was provided to establish the barrows within the regional cultural context. In result of the research, the anthropogenic origins of these structures was confirmed and connected to the Funnel Beaker culture. This discovery allows to incorporate the Central Greater Poland into the discussion on the megalithic funeral activity, which up to date was impossible due to the lack of data.</p> Danuta Żurkiewcz Jakub Niebieszczański Cezary Bahyrycz Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode.pl 2020-04-18 2020-04-18 72 1 333 354 10.23858/SA/72.2020.015 (Review) Aleksandr Diachenko, Małgorzata Rybicka (eds), Between the East and the West. Dynamic of Social Changes from the Eastern Carpathians to the Dnieper in 4th – beginning of 3th Millennium BC (Preliminary study). Rzeszów 2019: Wydawnictwo UR http://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1757 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Anka Zakościelna Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode.pl 2020-04-18 2020-04-18 72 1 355 357 10.23858/SA/72.2020.1.016