Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae 2022-01-02T17:03:24+01:00 Piotr Strzyż Open Journal Systems <div><strong><em>Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae</em></strong> is a peer-reviewed (Double-Blind Peer Reviews), interdisciplinary journal edited and annually published by the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, intended for an international audience. <br>The subject matter of the journal is historical archaeology in Europe: from antiquity to modern times. Preference is given to issues connected with the history of material culture, arms and armour, architecture, man and nature and the history of textiles, i.e. a field of research in which the <a href="">Centre for Research on Ancient Technologies</a> in Lodz, &nbsp;the publisher of the journal, has specialised for years.</div> <div><strong>ISSN:</strong> 0860-0007&nbsp; <strong>e-ISSN:</strong> 2719-7069&nbsp; <strong>DOI:</strong> 10.23858/FAH<br> <div>The Journal provides immediate open access to its content under a CC-BY version 4.0 International licence.<br><img src="" width="98" height="19">&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<a href=""><img src="" width="56" height="23"></a><br>Articles are published in the following languages: <strong>English, German</strong><br>Abstracts: <strong>English</strong><br>Frequency of publishing: <strong>annual</strong></div> </div> Against Disease, Suffering, and Other Plagues: the Magic-healing Role of Thunderstones in the Middle Ages and Modern Times 2021-12-21T10:20:09+01:00 Tomasz Kurasiński <p>Prehistoric stone objects (most often Neolithic) referred to as ‘thunderstones’ in the Middle Ages and modern times have been assigned various meanings – primarily they are supposed to have been used to protect against lightning, fire, and other natural disasters. They have also found application in folk medicine and healing magic (protection against the harmful effects of disease and loss of fertility, and neutralisation of misfortune when it has already occurred). Trust in their magical (apotropaic) properties was probably associated with the belief that these objects originated from outside the sphere of the ‘tame’ world. Folklore and ethnographic data, as well as traces of use preserved in archaeological monuments, support a long tradition of therapeutic use of thunderstones, which is a pan-European phenomenon.</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Strong but not Unbeatable: Two Cases of Healed Severe Skull Trauma in Males Buried in Medieval Mass Graves (Kutná Hora-Sedlec, Czech Republic) 2021-12-11T10:57:34+01:00 Hana Brzobohatá Filip Velímský Jan Frolík <p>This paper presents two cases of healed skull trauma recovered from medieval mass burial sites in Kutná Hora-Sedlec (Kutná Hora District/CZ). These recently unearthed burial pits are historically and contextually associated with two key catastrophes: (1) a famine in the early 14<sup>th</sup> century; and (2) the Black Death in the mid-14<sup>th</sup> century. The first skull presents evidence of survival from severe cranial injury with highly probable surgical intervention. The second one presents evidence of successful skull surgery, confirming the practice of trepanation performed by a skilled specialist in a given region at a given time in history. Although both individuals had been robust enough to withstand the pain and strain of the treatment, indicating considerable resilience to survive the skull trauma, they succumbed to mass infection or famine that killed a large number of inhabitants of this prominent medieval mining region.</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Disease, Cataclysm, or Industrialisation? A Comment on the Existence and Disappearance of a Modern Period Settlement in the Vicinity of Trachy in Upper Silesia 2021-12-21T11:50:27+01:00 Radosław Zdaniewicz Henryk Postawka <p>An analysis of map charts of Upper Silesia from the second half of the 18th century allows us to identify at least a few lost settlements and hamlets. There is no doubt that one such lost settlement existed upon the Bierawka river, in the vicinity of the present-day villages of Trachy (Althammer) and Tworóg Mały (Quarghammer). Regrettably, the exact location of this settlement has never been identified. An archival query and test excavations demonstrated that the settlement actually came into existence and developed as late as the Modern Period. A fragment of a stone and brick foundation that was uncovered in the course of excavations was the vestige of a hut or of a more professional industrial workshop, such as a finery or forge. It was equipped with a waterwheel. Unfortunately, the reasons behind the disappearance of the village are unknown. It may have been caused by one of the epidemics which affected the inhabitants of Upper Silesia in the 19th century or by another cataclysm. It cannot be excluded, however, that the disappearance may have been due to the economic transformations of the 19th century.</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Choleric Cemeteries in the Landscape of the Northern Part of the Polish Jurassic Highland 2021-12-11T10:57:27+01:00 Aleksandra Krupa-Ławrynowicz Olgierd Ławrynowicz <p>This paper presents the results of ethnographic and archaeological research into potential places of epidemic burial (choleric cemeteries) in two communes in the northern part of the Polish Jurassic Highland, Janów and Mstów. In their descriptions and analysis, ethnographic sources (local memory, accounts provided by inhabitants) and archaeological sources (non-destructive prospecting, probing research) were applied. Apart from presentation of field material, the aim of the paper is to indicate the potential of a combined ethnoarchaeological method applied in research to the contemporary past and to the landscape understood as cultural heritage.</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 On Crosses, Shrines, and Cholera Cemeteries in the Parishes of Mierzyn and Rozprza, Łódzkie Voivodeship (Poland) 2022-01-02T16:49:46+01:00 Maria Baranowska <p>The aim of this paper is to illustrate the material remains of epidemics that affected two parishes in the centre of Poland in the 18th and 19th centuries. The paper will present the preliminary results of research in archives (metrical books) compared with both the accounts of descendants of families who died as a result of the epidemics and prospecting with non-invasive methods (LIDAR).</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Rare Find: a 19th Century Song about Cholera in Slovenia and Its Interpretation 2021-12-11T10:57:22+01:00 Mojca Ramšak <p>The accidental discovery of an 1847 manuscript in the Local History and Special Collections Department at Maribor University Library in Slovenia (shelfmark: Kreps, 1847; UKM Ms 563), which contains, among other things, a song about cholera, was the basis for its contextual interpretation and comparison with related recorded songs. This new discovery is important because the song refers to the first wave of cholera on Slovene territory in 1836, whereas other songs describing the disease were written later. The text of the song resembles a collection of frightening news about the disease circulating among the people. The questions of whether the information in the song is real or fictional, genuine or exaggerated are discussed in light of the memory of cholera outbreaks found in other songs of the same genre and historical data.</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Crossbow Part Finds from the Territory of Mazovia and Dobrzyń Land 2021-12-21T11:52:53+01:00 Jarosław Ościłowski <p>The article discusses crossbow finds from the territory of historical Mazovia and Dobrzyń Land. These finds are mainly pieces of spanning devices and triggers. In the latter category we have a lever from the stronghold (motte) in Lekarcice Nowe as well as a few bone and antler nuts from strongholds in Czersk, Pułtusk, Warsaw, and Wizna. Included among the parts of spanning devices there is a mechanism from the castle in Liw. Furthermore, spanning stirrups have been recovered from strongholds on the Vistula river in Bobrowniki and Dobrzyń. The find from Liw merits special attention. This spanning device is of the band-and-belt type, which rarely occurs in East-Central Europe. Furthermore, the bow of the stirrup from Dobrzyń is provided with a broad foot plate with an asymmetrical rib. Such a construction was of significance for spanning the crossbow. The artefacts from Mazovia and Dobrzyń Land are dated from the 2nd half of the 13th to the 15th century.</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Hand Firearms in 15th-Century Poland. Why Did the Breakthrough Happen? 2022-01-02T17:03:24+01:00 Tadeusz Grabarczyk <p>The first mention of the use of artillery in Poland comes from 1383. Information on hand firearms is slightly later. In 1410, the use of one handbuchse by municipal guards in Kraków was recorded. However, over the next decades, hand firearms in Poland did not play a significant role. According to the records of mercenary infantry from the 1470s, less than 1% of soldiers owned firearms (simple handgonnes and hackbuts). Small arms started to play a bigger role only in the 1490s. According to the lists of mercenary infantry from 1496, 27% of shooters had firearms, while the rest still used crossbows. In the following years, the percentage of soldiers with firearms increased, exceeding 80% in 1500. It should be noted that in the late 15th century in mercenary censuses there is a new type of weapon called rusznica, a term that should be associated with matchlock handgonnes. The weapon quickly gained recognition from mercenaries. After 1498, matchlock handgonnes also appeared in the equipment of mounted mercenaries and members of the court banner. Matchlock handgonnes almost completely replaced crossbows in the armament of mercenary infantry. The author tries to present these changes in a European context, and explain how such changes in the armament of foot soldiers were possible in such a short time.</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Between the Falchion and the Sword: a Side Arms Specimen from the Naval Museum in Gdynia 2021-12-13T08:29:27+01:00 Piotr Strzyż <p>This paper discusses a falchion of unknown provenance kept in the Naval Museum in Gdynia. It is an example of a side arms characterised by both its hilt, specific to so-called ‘Moravian’ falchions and, most importantly, its double-edged sword blade bearing a mark in the form of a circle with an inscribed cross and the letter ‘S’. Based on typological and chronological analysis, the artefact can be dated to the second half of the 15th century.</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Polish-English Basic Dictionary of Archaeological Terminology of Modern Tobacco Pipe Findings with Elements of Pipe Production and Tobacco Smoking in the Modern Period 2021-12-11T10:56:43+01:00 Jakub Puziuk <p>The aim of this work is to present the translation of professional terminology concerning tobacco pipes acquired by excavation methods, supplementing the already existing term base of concepts with a Polish-English translation, important in the context of the current research on this subject. This dictionary is a translation of the basic terms used in English-language works (also used in works of researchers from Central and Eastern Europe) concerning descriptions of tobacco pipe remains (based on finds of stub-stemmed pipes, one-piece clay pipes and porcelain pipes) in archaeological research, the production of such paraphernalia and elements of history of tobacco smoking, which were additionally supplemented with terms currently used in Polish archaeological literature. This dictionary should be treated as a contribution to further work on standardisation of European archaeological terminology, which should provide an aid for both specialists and enthusiasts reaching for professional literature on antique pipes.</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ancient Brimmed Helmets as Introduction to Medieval Kettle Hats? 2021-12-11T10:56:40+01:00 Daniel Gosk <p>In many publications about arms and armour it is argued that kettle hats were known in antiquity or are derived from ancient helmets. This thesis led to the publication of European Armour circa 1066 to circa 1700 by Cloude Blair, published in 1958. This article aims to argue with Blair’s thesis by tracing the history of ancient brimmed helmets, showing that brimmed helmets were used from the 7th century BC to the first century AD in many regions and by many troop formations. However, these ancient brimmed helmets disappeared from battlefields at the beginning of the 2nd century AD, whereas the first sources concerning medieval brimmed helmets appear many centuries later, in the 11th century. Because of this issue of discontinuity, medieval ‘iron hats’ and ‘kettle hats’ cannot be identified with ancient forms they are associated with through the brim shape only; ancient helmets are distinct in their provenance and names.</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 (Review) Pavel Drnovský, Hmotná kultura šlechtických sídel severovýchodních Čech. Každodennost ve středověku pohledem archeologie, Hradec Králové 2018, pp. 344 2021-12-13T08:30:37+01:00 Magdalena Bis 2021-12-13T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 (Review) Sven Ekdahl, In Search of the Battlefield of Tannenberg (Grunwald) of 1410. New Research with Metal Detectors in 2014–2019, Vilnius 2019, pp. 279. 2021-12-11T10:56:35+01:00 Piotr Strzyż Jakub Wrzosek 2021-12-13T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021