Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae https://journals.iaepan.pl/fah <div><strong><em>Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae</em></strong> is a peer-reviewed (Double-Blind Peer Reviews), interdisciplinary journal edited and annually published by the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, intended for an international audience. <br>The subject matter of the journal is historical archaeology in Europe: from antiquity to modern times. Preference is given to issues connected with the history of material culture, arms and armour, architecture, man and nature and the history of textiles, i.e. a field of research in which the <a href="http://iaepan.edu.pl/instytut/struktura/osrodki/osrodek-badan-nad-dawnymi-technologiami/">Centre for Research on Ancient Technologies</a> in Lodz, &nbsp;the publisher of the journal, has specialised for years.</div> <div><strong>ISSN:</strong> 0860-0007&nbsp; <strong>e-ISSN:</strong> 2719-7069&nbsp; <strong>DOI:</strong> 10.23858/FAH<br> <div>The Journal provides immediate open access to its content under a CC-BY version 4.0 International licence.<br><img src="https://journals.iaepan.pl/public/site/images/mradomski/by3.png" width="98" height="19">&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<a href="https://journals.iaepan.pl/fah/copy"><img src="https://journals.iaepan.pl/public/site/images/mradomski/open-access-logo_311.png" width="56" height="23"></a><br>Articles are published in the following languages: <strong>English, German</strong><br>Abstracts: <strong>English</strong><br>Frequency of publishing: <strong>annual</strong></div> </div> Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology Polish Academy of Science en-US Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae 0860-0007 <p><strong>Declaration by the author submitting the paper for publication</strong></p> <p>I declare that the manuscript sent is original, has not been published before and is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere.<br>I confirm that the manuscript has been read and approved by all the authors mentioned and that there are no other persons who would meet the criteria for authorship but were not mentioned. In addition, I confirm that the order of the authors listed in the manuscript has been approved by all the authors.<br>I confirm that the corresponding author is the only contact with the Editorial Board in the editorial process, and is responsible for communicating with other authors and informing them about the progress, corrections and final approval of the article.</p> A Weapon from the Turn of the Epochs – A Unique Spatha from Lake Nidajno in Prussia https://journals.iaepan.pl/fah/article/view/2528 <p>This paper discusses the results of new technological examinations of a spatha blade from a bog sacrificial place in Lake Nidajno, Czaszkowo (Zatzkowen), Mrągowo District, Prussia, PL. The site can be dated to the turn of the Late Roman Period and the Migration Period and its origin may have been related to interactions between Germanic, Balt and Black Sea and North-Eastern Mediterranean cultures, and perhaps to migrations of the Galindians to Southern Europe and back. The archaeometallurgical examinations demonstrated that the blade had been manufactured using a complex pattern-welding technology. As a result, a weapon which possessed both high combat values and unique aesthetic traits was produced. The blade itself may be of Roman provenance.</p> Grzegorz Żabiński Copyright (c) 2020 Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 33 7 20 10.23858/FAH33.2020.001 On the Way to the Afterlife. Some Observations on the Presence of Weaponry in Early Medieval Cemeteries in the Context of Their Social and Cultural Circulation https://journals.iaepan.pl/fah/article/view/2535 <p>The custom of burying the dead with weaponry depended on prevailing social norms and religious beliefs which determined the choice of a particular type of weapon to be placed in a pit grave. The primary activity here seems to be the act of withdrawal of selectedelements of weaponry from further use for the purpose of including it in the posthumous equipment. This article addresses a few issues ofthis complex problem while taking account of early medieval finds, mainly from the territory of Poland. The presence of weapons in gravescould result from many ways and trajectories of their circulation, which finally contributed to a certain configuration and choice of elements of weaponry both in terms of quality as well as quantity deposited in burials. Many of the pieces of weaponry had their own special “history” or “biography” before being placed in the grave. They could have belonged to an esteemed ancestor, commemorate some special event or participate in an exchange many times.</p> Tomasz Kurasiński Copyright (c) 2020 Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 33 21 36 10.23858/FAH33.2020.002 Sword Pommels of Transitional Types from the Time of Social Transformation in 12th-Century Wrocław, Poland https://journals.iaepan.pl/fah/article/view/2536 <p>This paper presents a discussion of sword pommels found during archaeological excavations in the Old Town of Wrocław. The area under investigation, located on the left bank of the Odra River, is where the chartered town had developed a characteristic organised layout in the 13th century. Finds from the High Middle Ages, and among them, the analysed pommels, testify to an earlier settlement in this region. The pommels were excavated from the earliest strata related to this initial settlement phase. They represent forms of Oakeshott’s types B and E (Geibig’s types 15 and 19 respectively) which could be dated to the 12<sup>th</sup> century.</p> Lech Marek Copyright (c) 2020 Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 33 37 48 10.23858/FAH33.2020.003 New Rulers, New Rules? https://journals.iaepan.pl/fah/article/view/2537 <p>This paper discusses problems of changes in military equipment that was in use in the historical Sanok Land. Being situated in the borderland of Piast Poland and the Halych-Volhynia Principality, Sanok was located at the interface of two civilisations – Latin and Byzantine. This was naturally reflected in both the material and spiritual culture of this region which was incorporated into Kievan Rus’ in the 11<sup>th</sup> century and then became part of the Kingdom of Poland (Red Ruthenia) after 1340. A question asked by the authors is: did the change of state sovereignty in the mid-14th century and the appearance of colonists from the West result in popularisation of the ‘Latin’ model of weaponry or were medieval Rus’-style arms and armour still in use? On the basis of a confrontation of written, iconographic and archaeological sources which concern this region in the period between the 1st half of the 13<sup>th</sup> and the late 14<sup>th</sup> century the authors draw the conclusion that after the year 1340 some types which are characteristic for the Eastern European model of weaponry were replaced to a considerable degree by weapons evolving in the Latin sphere.</p> Piotr N. Kotowicz Paweł Skowroński Copyright (c) 2020 Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 33 49 69 10.23858/FAH33.2020.004 Between the Age of Heroes and the Period of Professional Troops https://journals.iaepan.pl/fah/article/view/2538 <p>This paper is concerned with the transformations that took place in the late-medieval and early-modern borderland of Silesia, Greater Poland, Brandenburg and Lusatia in the forms of arms and armour used between the end of the 15<sup>th</sup>- and the beginning of the 16th century. Gothic elements of arms and armour still exist in the iconography of the borderland until the 2nd decade of the 16<sup>th</sup> century. Fully developed Renaissance arms and armour (Maximilian, fluted, costume) appear in iconography of this region not earlier that 1530s.</p> Arkadiusz Michalak Copyright (c) 2020 Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 33 71 87 10.23858/FAH33.2020.005 From Tower to the Bastion https://journals.iaepan.pl/fah/article/view/2539 <p>The authors set out the key turning points in the evolution of defensive architecture in response to the appearance of firearms in the 1<sup>st</sup> quarter of the 14<sup>th</sup> century in Europe, for both attack and defence. Between the first adaptations to defences during the middle of the 14<sup>th</sup> century to the emergence of geometric whole defensive systems based on low-lying bastions and interconnected outworks in the 16<sup>th</sup> century, there was a long period of evolution, experimentation and development, responding to continuous improvement in the range and destructive power of gunpowder artillery. New designs of castles, fortresses and town walls focussed on the need to shield high medieval walls and towers against the power of the gun, but also on how to mount guns on defences and integrate loop holes to keep an attacker as far away as possible. Ideas diffused rapidly across Europe and the Muslim world. Factors such as the builder’s wealth and the purpose of the fortress also determined what was constructed.</p> Christof Krauskopf Peter Purton Copyright (c) 2020 Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 33 89 101 10.23858/FAH33.2020.006 Throwing Engines versus Gunpowder Artillery in Siege Activities in the Middle Ages https://journals.iaepan.pl/fah/article/view/2540 <p>The invention of gunpowder and its use in projectile throwing is rightly regarded as one of the greatest, if not the greatest, innovations in the history of war technology. However, the first artillery, which we have some mention of in Europe in 1326, had to compete for a long time with various types of throwing engines used in military operations, especially sieges, successfully since ancient times. It was no different in Central Europe, where throwing engines were still used in siege in the 4<sup>th</sup> quarter of the 15<sup>th</sup> century. The article analyses written and archaeological sources confirming the simultaneous use of throwing engines and gunpowder artillery in the Kingdom of Poland and the Kingdom of Bohemia until the end of the 15<sup>th</sup> century.</p> Piotr Strzyż Copyright (c) 2020 Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 33 103 123 10.23858/FAH33.2020.007 In Search of the Specificity of Transformation in the Crown Army during the Reign of the Last Jagiellonians https://journals.iaepan.pl/fah/article/view/2541 <p>In the classical theory of military revolution it is possible to list several distinctive features which, however, do not always correspond to the specificity of the armed forces and theatres of war other than Western-European ones. The transfigurations of Central European military science were partly dissimilar, as is shown by the research of numerous military historians (R. Frost, J. Maroń, G. Agoston, A. Kazakou). One of the differences was the appearance of the Cossack cavalry in the Polish army. They stood out mainly because of the arms and armour they used. The analysis of Cossack weapons and armour (based on examples of selected campaigns) during the reigns of the last Jagiellonian monarchs reign can be useful to verify how theory fits the circumstances of different fields of research.</p> Aleksander Bołdyrew Copyright (c) 2020 Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 33 125 132 10.23858/FAH33.2020.008 Some Remarks on Glass Seals from the Territory of Poland from the 17th-19th Centuries https://journals.iaepan.pl/fah/article/view/2542 <p>This paper presents information about modern glass seals obtained during archaeological excavations carried out on the territory of modern-day Poland after 1987. The author reviews finds and their characteristics and based on such collected data attempts to indicate their quantitative diversity, territorial range, and chronology. The paper also focuses on markings identified on glass seals divided by their types. These are individualised signs, monograms, symbols, descriptive signs, and numerical signs, mostly trademarks. This analysis aims to outline the state of research and indicate various research questions associated with the production and use of stamped glass vessels in Poland, which require further studies.</p> Magdalena Bis Copyright (c) 2020 Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 33 133 157 10.23858/FAH33.2020.009 Antler Bolt Shaft Plane – a Rare Tool from the Stronghold in Muszyna https://journals.iaepan.pl/fah/article/view/2533 <p>An antler bolt or arrow shaft plane is a tool rarely found in the archaeological materials. Even if one is discovered, it is probably incorrectly interpreted as a part of a musical instrument (a recorder or a pipe). Furthermore, it is believed that apart from the bone, stone and antler arrow or bolt shaft planes were also made of hardwood, which have not been preserved until today. It is a reason why in Poland we know only a few examples of this type of tool – the one discussed from the stronghold in Muszyna and one from the collection of Royal Castle in Warsaw. Therefore, this paper attempts to explain how the planes look like, how they were used and how to distinguish them from a musical instrument in order to avoid misinterpretations in the future, and maybe, to start a bigger work based on a larger number of relicts.</p> Anna Maria Garstka Artur Ginter Copyright (c) 2020 Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 33 159 165 10.23858/FAH33.2020.010 Archaeologist in the Archive https://journals.iaepan.pl/fah/article/view/2532 <p>The article discusses three late-medieval head protectors from Western Pomerania, forgotten by Polish scholars after World War II. The first one is the great helm known as the Topfhelm from Dargen, the second, a bascinet with visor from Leszczyn and the last one, the jousting sallet from the collection of Szczecin masons. Knowledge about those helms is highly significant for studies of late-medieval armour in Western Pomerania.</p> Andrzej Janowski Copyright (c) 2020 Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 33 167 174 10.23858/FAH33.2020.011 Between Technical-cultural Innovation by the Teutonic Order and Traditional Blacksmith Craftsmanship https://journals.iaepan.pl/fah/article/view/2529 <p>The article starts with the description of a rare spur with hinged arms from Starogród in Culm Land, discovered during an excavation in 2018. The artifact is dated to the 2nd quarter of the 13th century and comes from the area of the probable first location of Chełmno. The main aim of the study is to describe and discuss the existing theories regarding the interpretation of this form of spurs. There are three main theories on the subject. The most probable one is that the arms with hinges were to serve for easier fixing of spurs on heavy boots and those with large decorations, such as belts or buckles. Due to the very early dating of the oldest spurs of this type, it should rather be said that spurs with hinges were used wherever it was found that it would facilitate their mounting on the leg. In none of the periods of occurrence, were these forms dominant but merely co-existed with those with rigid arms</p> Maciej Majewski Copyright (c) 2020 Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 33 175 181 10.23858/FAH33.2020.012 Weaponry from the Vassals House in Křivoklát from the 15th Century https://journals.iaepan.pl/fah/article/view/2530 <p>This paper aims at discussing an exceptionally well dated assemblage of pre-Hussite weaponry in Bohemia which survived in Křivoklát Castle. This castle was one of the most important medieval defensive seats of the kings of Bohemia. Archaeological examinations of the so-called Vassal House (Czech: Manský dům, German: Lehensmannshaus) which were carried out in the 1980s by Tomaš Durdík yielded important results which have not been published in full. In destruction layers of the feature which was an economic hinterland of the castle there were numerous remains of weaponry and military equipment, such as fragments of shafted weapons, crossbows, armours and individual finds of firearms. These artefacts are now a unique assemblage of weaponry from the period of intense transformation of European arms and armour in the early 15<sup>th</sup> century. They are also a material testimony of existence of the castle garrison, which was composed of local vassals who were obliged to defend it. It is assumed that in the pre-Hussite period the garrison may have been composed of about 60 combatants, including nearly 40 shooters.</p> Josef Hložek Olgierd Ławrynowicz Copyright (c) 2020 Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 33 183 199 10.23858/FAH33.2020.013 The Charm of Detail – Laces and Points in Medieval and Modern Garments https://journals.iaepan.pl/fah/article/view/2527 <p>A good fit of clothing to the body mainly depended on the perfect cut. Another way to fit clothes to the body shape was to use lacing. In the Middle Ages, women’s gowns could be fitted with laced slits at the sides or in front of the dress. In men’s medieval attire, lacing mainly concerned the fastening of doublets and it was always placed at the front. Strings had one more special task – they supported a pair of hose tied to the doublet. In the course of time, the laces became more visible, gradually gaining a decorative function. An interesting collection of laces from archaeological excavations is stored in the Museum of Archaeology and History in Elbląg. The earliest lace is dated back to the 13<sup>th</sup> century, and another medieval find in this collection is a metal lace chape. Other artefacts are silk laces dated to the 16<sup>th</sup>, 17<sup>th</sup> and 17-18<sup>th</sup> centuries. The Elbląg collection documents the development of this part of clothing. It certainly constitutes an important part of a relatively small assemblage of surviving European fashion accessories of this type.</p> Anna Rybarczyk Copyright (c) 2020 Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 33 201 209 10.23858/FAH33.2020.014 A New Find of a Falchion from Central Poland https://journals.iaepan.pl/fah/article/view/2526 <p>This paper discusses a find of a falchion from the neighbourhood of Gieczno in the Łódzkie Voivodeship. This artefact comes from a sequestration of the collection of an illegal treasure hunter. This 15th century falchion with a conventional blade form stands out with its hilt which is provided with a cap-like pommel, and first of all with a scales rivet which is shaped as an ornamental rosette.</p> Piotr Strzyż Kalina Skóra Copyright (c) 2020 Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 33 211 215 10.23858/FAH33.2020.015 A Few Reflections on Suicide and Profane Death from not only an Archaeological Perspective on the Margins of Paweł Duma’s Book, ‘Profane Death in Burial Practices of a Pre-Industrial Society. A Study from Silesia’. https://journals.iaepan.pl/fah/article/view/2522 <p>A Few Reflections on Suicide and Profane Death from not only an Archaeological Perspective on the Margins of Paweł Duma’s Book, ‘Profane Death in Burial Practices of a Pre-Industrial Society. A Study from Silesia.</p> Kalina Skóra Copyright (c) 2020 Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 33 217 225 10.23858/FAH33.2020.016 (Review) Václav Matoušek, Pavel Hrnčiřik, Zdeněk Šámal, Rozvadov 1621. Vỳzkum bojiště třicetileté valky. České Budéjovice 2018, pp. 205 https://journals.iaepan.pl/fah/article/view/2524 <p>(Review) Václav Matoušek, Pavel Hrnčiřik, Zdeněk Šámal, Rozvadov 1621. Vỳzkum bojiště třicetileté valky.<br>České Budéjovice 2018, pp. 205</p> Jakub Wrzosek Copyright (c) 2020 Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-17 2020-12-17 33 227 229 10.23858/FAH33.2020.017