Przegląd Archeologiczny 2020-12-17T14:42:23+01:00 Małgorzata Markiewicz Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Przegląd Archeologiczny </strong>to rocznik poświęcony archeologii. Na łamach wychodzącego od stu lat Przeglądu Archeologicznego swoje prace opublikowało kilka pokoleń polskich i zagranicznych archeologów, znacznie przyczyniając się do rozwoju archeologii Polski i Europy Środkowej. Tematyka prac drukowanych na kartach periodyku obejmowała zagadnienia dotyczące metodologii oraz problematyki wszystkich epok od paleolitu po średniowiecze, na obszarze Europy, Ameryki i Bliskiego Wschodu. Redakcja Przeglądu Archeologicznego dąży do publikowania większych opracowań monograficznych dotyczących archeologii prehistorycznej i wczesnośredniowiecznej, głównie z krajów europejskich, a także metodologii i historii badań archeologicznych. Dużo miejsca również poświęca recenzjom, dyskusjom i polemikom. <em>Przegląd Archeologiczny</em> jest otwarty dla naukowców z różnych instytucji polskich i zagranicznych. Jakość artykułów jest gwarantowana przez licznych członków Komitetu Redakcyjnego, a także recenzentów, profesorów-specjalistów z Uniwersytetów, Instytutów Polskiej Akademii Nauk i instytucji zagranicznych.</p> The origin of the Tzolkin and the Long Count: Hans Ludendorff was right 2020-12-17T13:42:51+01:00 Arnold Lebeuf <p>The Long Count of the Olmec and Mayan calendars is composed of a series of 5,200 formal “years” of 360 days each called Tun. It has always been used as a chronological series of natural days starting from a day zero (, corresponding to the JD 584,284 (August 12, 3114 BC, Gregorian proleptic). Already in the earliest inscriptions this count of days is associated with the corresponding date in the sacred almanac of 260 days called Tzolkin. The day zero of the Long Count is associated with the day 4-Ahau in the Tzolkin. These two series have never been reformed and were continued without corrections or changes all through the history of Mesoamerica, regardless of many differences in epochs, cultures, and languages. There is a difference of one day between the Olmec-Mayan convention and the convention of Central Mexico which bases 4-Xochitl (the Nahuatl equivalent of the Mayan 4-Ahau) on JD 584,283. This difference has yet to find<br>any satisfactory explanation. The cycle of 260 days results of the combination of two unequal series, the first of twenty names and the second of 13 numbers, so that every 260 days a specific day name will match again the same number. In 1930 Hans Ludendorff claimed the Tzolkin is a small computer for eclipse predictions which has to be reset by one day back in the sacred calendar (Tzolkin) every 20 Tun, so that it would take 5,200 Tun for the system to regress one turn inside the Tzolkin (260 x 20 = 5,200). The Long Count, claimed Ludendorff, is the period of correction at long run for the derivation of the node of the lunar orbit in the Tzolkin serving as a small eclipse calculator. I myself have proposed that the Venus table in the Dresden Codex was primarily a table for the organization of the New Fire Ceremonies every 104 “years” or rather every true 65 Venus cycles. Venus serving then as the visible indicator of the invisible node of the lunar orbit because of their congruency every 65 true Venus mean cycles (Lebeuf 2003, 214-223). The present study does not propose any other correlation than the one usually accepted, that is, 4-Ahau 8-Cumhu = JD 584,284 for the Mayan (Caso 1967; 1971, 333-348). It only considers another possible relation between astronomy, the Tzolkin, and the Long Count at the time of their creation. The results fully confirm the hypothesis of Hans Ludendorff concerning the origin of these two series. Without disclaiming the use of the Long Count as a chronological series of natural days, I shall propose here to read also, and maybe primarily, the Long Count as a conventional representation of 5,200 “years” or more exactly of 3,250 Venus cycles representing the derivation of the nodes of the lunar orbit inside the Tzolkin.</p> 2020-12-06T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 O działaniach parateatralnych w epoce brązu 2020-12-17T14:06:15+01:00 Tomasz Gralak <p>In this paper, paratheatrical activities are defined and archaeological finds that may confirm their presence are indicated. They are first of all manifested through the burial type and certain forms of artefacts. The analysis of the phenomenon focuses on the Bronze Age in Central Europe. It is discussed in the context of the following archaeological cultures: the Únětice culture, the Tumulus culture, and the Urnfield culture.</p> 2020-12-06T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evaluation of the animal husbandry economy and meat consumption in the early and classical developmental phases of the Lusatian culture in Witów, site 1, Koszyce commune 2020-12-17T14:13:56+01:00 Ulana Gocman <p>Archaeological excavations conducted since 2002 in Witów, site 1, Koszyce commune have provided a large collection of animal bone remains. Analysis of this source category became the basis for evaluating the economic model in the early and classical developmental phases of the Lusatian settlement on this site. In both analyzed chronological periods, the basis for obtaining meat was animal husbandry. The dominant component in the analyzed collection is that of cattle bone remains, followed by sheep and goats as well as pigs in third place. Such species distribution indicates a plant cultivation/animal husbandry economy with a large share of pastoral traditions. One of the important areas of natural resource management was the collection of freshwater bivalves, which probably resulted from natural conditions. The low percentage of wild animal remains indicates that hunting played a marginal role in the sphere of economic activity of the communities analyzed. The lack of noticeable transformations in the domestic animals management system suggests that the economic model chosen in the early settlement phase turned out to be the most optimal strategy in relation to the environmental realities. A comparative analysis of the animal husbandry economy in Witów with other settlements of the Lusatian culture in Małopolska (Lesser Poland) and Śląsk (Silesia) showed some common trends. The obtained results indicate that apart from environmental pressure, cultural considerations and animal husbandry tradition to some extent determined the choice of the economic model.</p> 2020-12-06T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The spatial and functional structure of the settlement from the Early Iron Age in Milejowice, site 19, district Wrocław, in the social aspect 2020-12-17T14:15:39+01:00 Aneta Buchner Ewa Bugaj <p>In this paper the authors present the results of spatial analyses performed using GIS tools which were used to recognize the spatial and functional structure of the settlement in Milejowice, site 19, dating back to the Early Iron Age. The aim of the study was to more precisely define the function of the discovered complexes with pole construction buildings arranged around an empty area and to make another attempt at gaining insight into the structure of the society that lived in the settlement. The acquired results allowed a discussion on the earlier interpretations of the settlement in Milejowice, according to which a part of the site functioned as a seat of the elite who distinguished their place of residence with circular fences. The results of GIS analyses did not make it possible to precisely determine the character of the society that inhabited the site. However, in the opinion of the authors, the specific organization of spatial development in Milejowice, taking into account the distribution of different kinds of artifacts within its area, may indicate social stratification among the inhabitants. The basis of the stratification was, above all, access to prestige goods and the division of social roles connected with particular economic or professional activity.</p> 2020-12-06T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Między starożytnością a średniowieczem: problem rekonstrukcji struktur społecznych. Na marginesie periodyku „Studia Academica Šumenensia”, t. I-V, 2014-2018 2020-12-17T14:42:23+01:00 Anna Głód <p>The goal of the article is to draw attention to the problem of correlation, to attempts to connect two seemingly very different worlds – namely, Late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages. Included is the problem of reconstructing the social structures functioning in this period in the Balkans in the broad context of southeastern Europe. This problem has been discussed in relation to the area of Dalmatia, and the inspiration to write these comments came from the journal Studia Academica Šumenensia (SA Š) issued by the Department of History and Archaeology of the University of Shumen, Bulgaria. One of the articles published in the SA Š is a work by D. Dzino that deals with the problem of reconstructing the social structures of Dalmatia between the 6th and 9th centuries. In this paper we encounter another attempt to adopt the anthropological concept of ‘big man’ by Marshal-Sahlins.</p> 2020-12-06T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Polish historiography and archaeology on the mechanisms behind the formation of the Piasts’ regnum 2020-12-17T14:23:00+01:00 Michał Kara <p>This paper discusses the hypotheses developed by Polish researchers on the mechanisms behind the formation of the Piast state. All issues are discussed from the perspective of medieval history, the views of which were until recently prominent in the literature on the subject, and also from the perspective of the more recent findings of early medieval archaeology. The proposals tabled by archaeologists from particular Polish research centres (in Poznań, Warsaw and Wroclaw) are confronted with the results of historical research. A representative of the Poznań centre, the author presents his ideas on the subject as based, e.g., on the results of absolute dating, which are not always consistent with the views of other scholars.</p> 2020-12-06T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Biografia krajobrazu zbiegu Noteci do Warty w perspektywie archeologicznej interpretacji danych teledetekcyjnych 2020-12-17T14:23:27+01:00 Mikołaj Kostyrko Kinga Zamelska-Monczak <p>This paper presents a case study of a place that during one period in history played an important role in the structures of the Piast state, and then, as a result of subsequent historical events, lost much of its significance. In the 14th century, Santok was already on the margins of ‘grand history’ and fading into oblivion. This changed as a result of archaeological excavations carried out here for the first time in the 1930s. The narrative adopted in this article is based on a presentation of landscape biography and analysis of spatial sources – namely, historical aerial photographs and ones deriving from airborne laser scanning. This point of view has allowed the authors to pay special attention to previously neglected fragments of the history of the landscape under analysis.</p> 2020-12-06T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Wczesnośredniowieczne maski Słowian. Obrazy zmarłych, bogów, czy rekwizyty rytualne? 2020-12-17T14:23:50+01:00 Paweł Szczepanik <p>Masks have played an important role in human culture since the earliest times. In the present paper Slavic masks that date back to the Early Middle Ages are analyzed. The collection of artefacts consists of extraordinary finds from Opole and their somewhat later analogies from Veliky Novgorod and its surroundings, which constitutes the whole catalogue of Slavic finds. Masks are connected with different kinds of performative activities. However, I will make an attempt to prove that in the discussed chronological and cultural context they were explicitly associated with the world of the dead. Such information can be found in several written sources related to the religious beliefs of the Slavs. The article presents possible interpretation paths that allow us to see masks as images of gods, the deceased, or to interpret them as ritual props connected with annual rites, during which hosting the dead was one of the key elements.</p> 2020-12-06T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 The virtual reconstruction of an early medieval folded sickle from Nasielsk 2020-12-17T14:24:13+01:00 Mateusz Osiadacz <p>During archaeological research carried out in Nasielsk, Poland in 2006 by Dr. M. Błoński, a fragment of an ornamented sickle handle was found. It most likely dates to the 2nd half of the 10th century, but may have been made as late as the mid-11th century. The sickle with a movable blade is interpreted as belonging to the equipment of an elite horse warrior. Many finds of this type known from unusual medieval deposits suggests their special, symbolic meaning and a connection with the military sphere. The artefact is ornamented with a variation of the Borre ring-chain pattern – specifically, the Pomeranian school of Scandinavian-Insular decoration. The origins of this style emerged in the 10th century with the combining of Celtic, English, and Scandinavian elements – and it was developed intensively in western Pomerania. The artefact from Nasielsk has only partially survived. The preserved fragment of the handle was 3D scanned using a structured<br>light scanner and photogrammetry software. In order to make a 3D reconstruction, documentation of a second, not available fragment was also used. Moreover, certain analogies from early medieval folded sickles were analyzed. The most important questions concerned the shape of the blade, the continuation of the ornament, its design features, and a proper visualization of the reconstruction.</p> 2020-12-06T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Borownia. Prehistoryczna kopalnia krzemienia pasiastego z Listy Światowego Dziedzictwa 2020-12-17T14:24:39+01:00 Jacek Lech <p>The site was discovered in 1921. It is located in the sandy area of the Iłża Foreland, in central Poland on the Kamienna river, a left tributary of the middle Vistula river. In 1922 the Borownia site was referred to as a campignian striped flint mine. In 1935 it became a protected area because of the well-preserved prehistoric mine landscape. Since its discovery, it has been repeatedly studied by non-destructive methods. In 2017 a decision was made to submit the site for entry on the World Heritage List as part of the Krzemionki Prehistoric Striped Flint Mining Region. In the same year the first excavations were carried out in order to obtain samples for mine dating by the 14C method. In light of the archaeological material and dates it was found that the flint deposit was mined in the early Bronze Age, between 2300 and 1600/1500 cal. BC . From striped flint bifacial axe blades and adzes were produced. The author believes that the mine was exploited by communities inhabiting the small Gierczanka river area, mainly in the settlement Mierzanowice, located 10 km south of Borownia, on the loess upland (the Mierzanowice culture). On July 6, 2019 the mine, together with the Krzemionki Prehistoric Striped Flint Mining Region, was entered on the World Heritage List. The article presents three visualizations: the shaft, the Borownia mining field, and settlement Mierzanowice.</p> 2020-12-06T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Czy Piekiełko koło Tomaszowa Lubelskiego jest stanowiskiem archeologicznym? Wyniki badań geologicznych, archiwalnych i archeologicznych 2020-12-17T14:25:01+01:00 Barbara Niezabitowska-Wiśniewska Jerzy Nitychoruk Tadeusz Wiśniewski Maciej T. Krajcarz <p>The geological reserve of Piekiełko (Tomaszów Lubelski district, Lublin voivodeship, Poland) was established in 1962 to protect the sandstone boulders untypical of this region. There are anthropogenic earthen ramparts in their immediate vicinity. The presence of the ramparts and boulders contributed to the recognition of this place as an archaeological site – an immovable archaeological monument. Owing to local legends and its peculiar folk name (Piekiełko means “little hell”), scientific monographs and heritage tourism have regarded Piekiełko as a prehistoric or medieval place of worship. However, despite the distinctive land relief and a prominent place in local tradition, Piekiełko has never been subject to in-depth archaeological research. As a result, we could only have speculated on the original function of the ramparts, their chronology, cultural affiliation, and potential relation to the boulders. This paper addresses the need to determine the history of Piekiełko and systematize the history of research concerning this place. It presents the results of interdisciplinary research using geological and archaeological methods, complemented by analysis of archival sources: written, cartographic, and iconographic.</p> 2020-12-06T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Wczesnośredniowieczne osadnictwo, gospodarka i eksploatacja środowiska przyrodniczego w rejonie Ziemi Puckiej na przykładzie badań w Błądzikowie (st. 7) 2020-12-17T14:25:24+01:00 Paweł M. Pogodziński Bartosz Świątkowski Joanna Piątkowska-Małecka Iwona Miśkowicz Grzegorz Skrzyński Monika Badura Alicja Jurgielewicz <p>This work discusses the results of archaeological and environmental research carried out on site No. 7 in Błądzikowo, bringing new data for a better recognition of the settlement and economy of the Puck Land in the early Middle Ages. Excavations have unearthed the remains of a small wooden-earthen rampart and a dwelling building. Archaeological materials (pottery fragments, a grain roasting vessel, a game’s pawn) as well as organic finds (macroscopic plant remains, animal remains) were acquired. The research results indicate that this place probably served as a watchtower, or possibly a navigation point used from the second half of the 8th century to the beginning of the 9th. The population living there made use of crops (barley, millet, wheat), pursued animal husbandry (pigs, ruminants), as well as gathered (blackberries, hazelnuts),<br>hunted (wild boar, red deer), fished (Cyprinidae species), and caught marine mammals.</p> 2020-12-06T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Grzegorz Kiarszys, Atomowi żołnierze wolności. Archeologia magazynów atomowych w Polsce. Szczecin 2019, ss. 334, ISBN 978-83-7972-333-1. 2020-12-17T14:25:49+01:00 Dawid Kobiałka 2020-12-06T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020