Przegląd Archeologiczny https://journals.iaepan.pl/pa <p><strong>Przegląd Archeologiczny </strong>to rocznik poświęcony archeologii. Na łamach wychodzącego od stu lat Przeglądu Archeologicznego swoje prace opublikowało kilka pokoleń polskich i zagranicznych archeologów, znacznie przyczyniając się do rozwoju archeologii Polski i Europy Środkowej. Tematyka prac drukowanych na kartach periodyku obejmowała zagadnienia dotyczące metodologii oraz problematyki wszystkich epok od paleolitu po średniowiecze, na obszarze Europy, Ameryki i Bliskiego Wschodu. Redakcja Przeglądu Archeologicznego dąży do publikowania większych opracowań monograficznych dotyczących archeologii prehistorycznej i wczesnośredniowiecznej, głównie z krajów europejskich, a także metodologii i historii badań archeologicznych. Dużo miejsca również poświęca recenzjom, dyskusjom i polemikom. <em>Przegląd Archeologiczny</em> jest otwarty dla naukowców z różnych instytucji polskich i zagranicznych. Jakość artykułów jest gwarantowana przez licznych członków Komitetu Redakcyjnego, a także recenzentów, profesorów-specjalistów z Uniwersytetów, Instytutów Polskiej Akademii Nauk i instytucji zagranicznych.<br>Procedura recenzyjna, przygotowanie do druku oraz publikacja tekstów na łamach czasopisma są bezpłatne. Do wszystkich publikowanych materiałów zapewniany jest natychmiastowy wolny dostęp na międzynarodowej licencji CC-BY. <br><img src="/public/site/images/markiewicz/Logo_CC_BY_Open_Acces_małe1a1.jpg" width="200" height="39"></p> Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk pl-PL Przegląd Archeologiczny 0079-7138 <p>Oświadczam, że przesłany rękopis jest oryginalny, nie został wcześniej opublikowany, jak również nie jest obecnie rozważane do publikacji w innym miejscu. <br>Potwierdzam, że manuskrypt został przeczytany i zatwierdzony przez wszystkich wymienionych autorów i że nie ma innych osób, które spełniłyby kryteria autorstwa, ale nie zostały wymienione. Dodatkowo potwierdź, że kolejność autorów wymienionych w rękopisie została zatwierdzona przez wszystkich Autorów. <br>Potwierdzam, że autor korespondencyjny jest jedynym kontaktem z Redakcją w procesie redakcyjnym. Odpowiedzialny jest za komunikowanie się z pozostałymi autorami i informowanie ich o postępach, wprowadzanych korektach oraz o ostatecznym zatwierdzeniu artykułu.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kamienie zrodzone z pioruna. O nietypowej formie recyklingu w średniowieczu i czasach nowożytnych https://journals.iaepan.pl/pa/article/view/2344 <p>The article is an attempt to determine to what extent the folkloric and ethnographic data concerning the cultural significance and functions performed by re-used stone products hailing from prehistoric times (mainly various types of axes, hammers, adzes, and hammers axes, usually from the Neolithic, less often from other periods), are reflected in medieval and modern historical materials. Finds from almost all over Europe were taken into account. In the Middle Ages and later, thunderstones gained a great deal of importance, because there were few items that, after their original function had disappeared,<br>remained in such wide use, far beyond traditionally understood recycling, which is usually limited to the re-use of raw materials and remedial actions. As objects of great sacred importance, they found a permanent place in the rituals and imaginations of ancient communities.</p> Tomasz Kurasiński Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Archeologiczny https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 69 5 62 10.23858/PA69.2021.2344 Igranie z ogniem – rytuały pogrzebowe kultury strzyżowskiej na przykładzie wybranych pochowków z cmentarzyska w Rogalinie https://journals.iaepan.pl/pa/article/view/1857 <p>The text presents newly discovered graves of Strzyżów culture from the Early Bronze Age, located at a cemetery in Rogalin, Poland. The funeral rites of Strzyżów culture are multifaceted. Most of the dead were placed in graves in supine position, equipped with vessels, tools, and ornaments – and then buried. This text, however, discusses burial rites involving the use of fire both in open burial pits and after burial, as well as subsequent practices of opening and disturbing graves. Analysis was supplemented by results of radiocarbon dating.</p> Anna Hyrchała Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Archeologiczny https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 69 63 83 10.23858/PA69.2021.1857 Materiał kostny z czterech grobów kultury strzyżowskiej wyeksplorowanych w latach 2015-2016 na stanowisku 15 w Rogalinie w świetle badań interdyscyplinarnych https://journals.iaepan.pl/pa/article/view/1858 <p>In 2008 a burial site was discovered in Rogalin (eastern Poland). Interdisciplinary investigations were carried out and it was concluded that the site was a unique example of Strzyżów culture, an agricultural culture found in eastern Poland and western Ukraine, dated to the Early Bronze Age (2000/1950–1600 BC ). Strzyżów culture spread over the area from the eastern part of Lublin Upland (area between the upper Wieprz river and Bug river) to the area of south-western Volhynia crossing Horyn river in present-day Ukraine. The highest density of its sites is in the territory of Horodło Plateau and near the town of Hrubieszów. Sixteen graves were discovered between 2009 and 2016. The aim of the study was to conduct analysis of skeletal remains from four burial graves – no. 13, 14, 15, and 16 excavated in 2015 and 2016. Research was based on macroscopic, stereomicroscopic analysis, X-ray and CT examinations.</p> Dorota Lorkiewicz-Muszyńska Monica Abreu-Głowacka Wojciech Kociemba Mariusz Glapiński Eliza Michalak Marzanna Ciesielka Anna Hyrchała Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Archeologiczny https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 69 85 109 10.23858/PA69.2021.1858 Tekstylia i pieczęcie. O relacjach pomiędzy produkcją włókienniczą a praktykami stemplowania w Grecji epoki brązu oraz o zupełnie nowych danych z odcisków glinianych pieczęci https://journals.iaepan.pl/pa/article/view/2555 <p>This contribution discusses the evidence of textile impressions preserved on the undersides of clay sealings from Bronze Age Greece. A collection of modern casts taken from these sealings, stored in the Corpus der minoischen und mykenischen Siegel in Heidelberg, is currently being analyzed by the author. The assumed reliability of textile impressions as a source of knowledge about the qualities of actual textiles and raw materials used to produce them has been verified by a series of archaeological experiments and comparative analysis of modern raw materials of various origin. Results ofthe analysis of 199 casts from two Aegean sites: Lerna in Argolid and Phaistos on Crete, have provided new evidence for technical uses of textile and organic products in the daily storage routine and sealing practices, as well as for the specific parameters of threads, cords, and fabrics impressed on clay. Due to the relatively large number of textile imprints, it is possible, for the first time, to make site-specific comparisons of textile production on the basis of products and to track<br>technical developments in textile manufacturing throughout the Aegean Bronze Age.</p> Agata Ulanowska Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Archeologiczny https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 69 111 135 10.23858/PA69.2021.2555 Pewne uwagi na temat możliwej funkcji bezpośredniej miecza brązowego z grobu nr 7429 z cmentarzyska ciałopalnego kultury łużyckiej w Domasławiu w świetle analiz traseologicznych https://journals.iaepan.pl/pa/article/view/2109 <p>The specific relationship between weapon-form and mode of use has become a subject of intense research regarding the martial practices of past societies. In recent years the application of wear analysis to bronze offensive weapons has allowed us to define their function on the basis of recognizable damage. This paper aims to present results of use-wear analysis conducted on a unique bronze sword that was found in Domasław, Poland in a cremation cemetery belonging to Lusatian culture. The sword reveals a broad range of traces, ones which may be attributed to respective fighting techniques. Another goal of the present work is to partially fill the research void which presently exists concerning warfare as practiced by the Lusatian culture people, and to point out the necessity of carrying out further studies of this kind.</p> Jakub Witowski Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Archeologiczny https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 69 137 145 10.23858/PA69.2021.2109 Problem chronologii zolnika z grodziska w Chotyńcu i tworzących go poziomów użytkowych w świetle badań nad klasyfikacją i datowaniem szpil https://journals.iaepan.pl/pa/article/view/2262 <p>The article presents the partial results of archaeological research carried out on the burgwall zolnik in Chotyniec, site 1. It aims to classify the historical objects discovered in terms of functional qualification – namely, the pins that were found in 2017-2019, and to introduce them into the scientific circulation. This interesting and relatively numerous series of artifacts complements and enriches our knowledge on many aspects of the zolnik’s function, including its chronology and cultural connections. In this sketch, an analysis of the typological and chronological position of the pins was carried out, and on its basis an attempt was made to estimate the dating of the zolnik (the usable levels that form it).</p> Joanna Adamik-Proksa Ewelina Ocadryga-Tokarczyk Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Archeologiczny https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 69 147 169 10.23858/PA69.2021.2262 Wiejskie struktury osadnicze i ich przemiany w czasie. Przykład Nowosielca na dawnym pograniczu polsko-rusko-litewskim https://journals.iaepan.pl/pa/article/view/2105 <p>The article discusses the results of archaeological-onomastic research carried out for the village of Nowosielec, Łosice dist., situated in the Toczna river basin on the northern edge of Poland’s Siedlce Upland. Archaeological analyses of the chronological and spatial development of this micro-regional settlement showed this oecumene to have been continuously viable from the younger phases of the early Middle Ages to modern times. A trace of the continuity of settlement is preserved as the very place-name Nowosielec = Nowe Sioło (‘New Village’), which records memory of the existence of an older village. Its onomastic base indicates that it derived from the Old East Slavic term seło, which formed the core of many toponyms along the eastern frontier of contemporary Poland. The rise of the oldest settlement was probably related to the socioeconomic facilities of the nearby Dzięcioły stronghold – identified as the pre-location centre of the region (medieval Łosice). The example of Nowosielec and two other local micro-regions where settlement processes show similar patterns, offer insight into the regional settlement regress dated to the 2nd half of the 13th century. Results of the research carried out in the upper Toczna river basin show that its cultural landscape radically changed not earlier than during the 14th-15th centuries and was not caused by a demographic decline. Regional cultural continuity between the early medieval, late medieval, and modern times can be identified thanks to archaeological investigations and linguistic analysis of regional toponyms – in the case of microregions continuously functioning from the early Middle Ages till the modern period –<br>derived from Old Russian apellatives and personal names.</p> Katarzyna Skrzyńska Zygmunt Gałecki Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Archeologiczny https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 69 171 190 10.23858/PA69.2021.2105 Siedziby pańskie na Śląsku w świetle źródeł pisanych. Studium nad średniowieczną nomenklaturą https://journals.iaepan.pl/pa/article/view/2096 <p>The subject of this study is the nomenclature used in medieval written sources for small feudal residences. The majority of them are private foundations of vassals to the duke, i.e., knights and citizens of Wroclaw. A few examples are seats of village administrators, as well as rural mansions of knightly orders. Also examined are smaller objects (most having special functions) built by territorial rulers – namely, Silesian dukes and bishops of Wrocław. These objects were clearly different in their scale from the stately brick castles that played the role of princely residences or were otherwise part of the country’s administrative structure. In light of the materials collected, small feudal residences were mentioned in medieval Silesian written sources as: curia/Hof, curia habitationis, curia murata/gemauerte Hof, castrum/Burg/Haus, fortalicium/Feste, propugnaculum/Bergfried, turris/Turm, Gesesse, Sitz, Rittersitz.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dominik Nowakowski Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Archeologiczny https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 69 191 220 10.23858/PA69.2021.2096 The Romanesque sculpture from Nowy Targ Square in Wrocław (Lower Silesia, Poland) in the light of interdisciplinary studies https://journals.iaepan.pl/pa/article/view/2125 <p>The article discusses the results of interdisciplinary studies of a Romanesque stone head of high-quality artistry. It was discovered in 2017 during excavations at Nowy Targ (New Market) Square in the city of Wrocław (Lower Silesia, Poland). The sculpture originally came from one of the Romanesque sacred buildings of Wrocław, none of which have survived to this day. Although it had been made in the mid-12th century, it was found in the remains of a wooden residential building burnt down in the 14th century. The results of petrographic analyses indicate that the stone head was made of fine-grained sandstone classified as lithic wacke. The raw material was most likely a Devonian-Carboniferous sandstone from the Opava Mountains. However, similar sandstones also occurred in several medieval mines located in Upper Silesia. According to a popular belief, medieval aesthetics required such sculptures to be polychromed. The non-destructive analyses conducted with the microscopic XRF , XRD , and FTIR methods demonstrated that a clean stone surface was also acceptable.</p> Paweł Duma Piotr Gunia Beata Miazga Jerzy Piekalski Jerzy Serafin Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Archeologiczny https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 69 221 241 10.23858/PA69.2021.2125 Leon Kozłowski (1892-1944) – krakowski etap życia naukowca, żołnierza, polityka https://journals.iaepan.pl/pa/article/view/2065 <p>Leon Kozłowski (1892-1944), the outstanding prehistorian, soldier, and politician, was connected with Kraków from the beginning of his studies until he obtained his postdoctoral degree. He studied natural sciences and then archaeology at the Jagiellonian University while being also an unofficial assistant at the Archaeological Museum of the Academy of Arts and Sciences in Kraków. The Academy appointed him to explore Lusatian cemeteries near Tarnobrzeg, to excavate a Palaeolithic site in Jaksice (former Miechów district), megalithic graves in Kuyavia, and the Mammoth Cave in the Polish Jura. He collected materials for the Academy during a scientific expedition to the Crimea and the Caucasus organized by Robert Rudolf Schmidt (1882-1950) from the University of Tübingen. During the First World War, Kozłowski joined the Polish Legions and was thus involved in the struggle for Polish independence. He moved to Warsaw to write his doctoral thesis based on the collection of the Erazm Majewski Museum and then defended it in Tübingen. After he gained his postdoctoral degree in Kraków, he took the chair of prehistory in Lwów/Lviv and his contacts with the Jagiellonian University and the Academy of Arts and Sciences in Kraków came to a close. It was only in 1935 that he was elected a corresponding member of the Academy.</p> Marzena Woźny Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Archeologiczny https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 69 243 278 10.23858/PA69.2021.2065 Radosław Palonka, Sztuka i archeologia kultur indiańskich prekolumbijskiego Południowego Zachodu USA. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, Kraków 2019, ss. 530, ryc. 307, tabl. 15. https://journals.iaepan.pl/pa/article/view/2402 Józef Szykulski Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Archeologiczny https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 69 279 283 10.23858/PA69.2021.2402 Wspomnienia https://journals.iaepan.pl/pa/article/view/2604 Bogusław Gediga Copyright (c) 2021 Przegląd Archeologiczny https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 69 284 290 10.23858/PA69.2021.2604