Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa <p><em>Sprawozdania Archeologiczne </em>są recenzowanym polskim czasopismem archeologicznym, publikującym artykuły w języku angielskim, wydawanym od 1955 roku przez krakowski Ośrodek Instytutu Archeologii i Etnologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk. Publikowana w nich tematyka jest dedykowana miedzynarodowej społeczności archeologów oraz ludziom zainteresowanym problematyką prahistorii Starego i Nowego Świata.</p> Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk pl-PL Sprawozdania Archeologiczne 0081-3834 Bark pitch in the Early Neolithic of Central Europe https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2311 <p>The Linear Pottery people in 5670-5000 BC at the Brunn sites in Austria produced birch and beech bark pitches. Big globular vessels and closed high bowls could have been containers for the production and storage of this substance. Miniature vessels with a handle for hanging had contained small portions. Bark pitch as an adhesive for the repair of pottery and in the construction of big idols is also testified, as is the application of this material in decoration of vessels and idols, where bark pitch was a matrix for inlaying &nbsp;with grains or stones and creation of a contrasting black colour in linear ornamentation. Radiocarbon dating of bark pitch now is one of the most reliable materials for age determination of the Neolithic objects.</p> Nadezhda Kotova Peter Stadler Tomasz Goslar Copyright (c) 2021 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-03-10 2021-03-10 73 2 10.23858/SA/73.2021.2.2311 On the chronology of the Sabatynivka group of the Cucuteni-Trypillia cultural complex (Central Ukraine) https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2405 <p>The paper treats the dating of the Sabatynivka group of Cucuteni-Trypillia. The authors compared the sets of radiocarbon dates, which were obtained for the sites of the aspect, analyzed the relative chronology of the Sabatynivka group, and checked their correspondence with the dating of the contemporaneous cultural aspects. This approach helped to establish the synchronism of the Sabatynivka group with the Skelia phase of Seredny Stog culture, Gumelniţa A2 and Cucuteni A3-A4. The sites of the group existed during 44-42 centuries BCE.</p> Dmytro Kiosak Mariia Lobanova Copyright (c) 2021 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-03-10 2021-03-10 73 2 10.23858/SA/73.2021.2.2405 Utility structures of the Tripolye culture https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2633 <p>Over the hundred years of explorations of the Tripolye sites resulted in the excavation of hundreds dwellings. This paper discusses the identification of the Tripolian utility structures, their construction details, interior, and function. The differences between utility structures and houses are also addressed. The results of the presented analysis make possible the distinguishing of three variations of the utility structures. Each of these is exemplified by the cases from sites of different chronology.</p> Dmitriy Chernovol Copyright (c) 2021 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-03-10 2021-03-10 73 2 10.23858/SA/73.2021.2.2633 Settlements and economy of the Funnel Beaker Culture communities. Archaeological and palynological evidence from the annually laminated lake bottom sediments (Gostynin Lake District, central Poland) https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2551 <p>Palynological information preserved in pollen diagrams is of key importance for investigating prehistoric human activity. According to M. Ralska-Jasiewiczowa, of particular importance for assessing anthropopressure are results of the multidisciplinary research of annually laminated lake sediments carried out in Lake Gościąż and its surroundings in the Gostynin Lake District. In light of the results of human-environment analyses, the environmental disturbances recorded in laminated bottom sediments from Lake Gościąż can be described as reflecting pollen being “an account from afar”. In the analysed case, the pollen fallout may have originated from longer distances, and the recorded transformations of plant assemblages, both with respect to phase 5 and phase 6 from Gościąż, can be attributed to humans inhabiting up to 10 km from Lake Gościąż (e.g. around Lake Białe). On the other hand, the observations made in palynological sites of Białe, Lucieńskie, and Gąsak are well-correlated with the archaeological evidence of human activity. These diagrams reflect nearby activity, as the changes recorded in them correlate distinctly with the intensity of FBC settlement.</p> Andrzej Pelisiak Małgorzata Rybicka Copyright (c) 2021 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-03-10 2021-03-10 73 2 10.23858/SA/73.2021.2.2551 Dwellings and their nearest surroundings in the 4th millennium BC in the Eastern Carpathian area: a case study from the Gordineşti II-Stînca Goală settlement https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2672 <p>Investigation into the construction of dwellings, their spatial arrangements, and the nearest surroundings is highly relevant in the field of study on functioning of archaeological phenomenona. During the recent years of excavation undertaken at the Gordineşti II-<em>Stînca goală</em> site, we revealed the remains of at least two dwellings and their economic surroundings that may be referred to on the whole as household clusters. In this paper, we would like to focus on one of them (dwelling no. 1). Our main goal is to present not only the key attributes of the dwelling, but also the results of the spatial analysis of features and artifacts found inside and outside of it. Based on that data, we can suggest that this dwelling consisted of two functionally-varied rooms. This inference seems to be also relevant in the broader sense; it can expand the general knowledge related to issues relating to the household clusters usage in the Eastern Carpathian area in the end of the 4<sup>th</sup> Millennium BC.</p> Ghenadie Sîrbu Dariusz Król Copyright (c) 2021 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 73 2 10.23858/SA/73.2021.2.2672 Preliminary characterization of the prehistoric mine of chocolate flint in Poręba Dzierżna, site 24 (Wolbrom commune, Lesser Poland voivodeship) https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2546 <p><em>Starożytne kopalnie krzemienia są obecnie jedną z szeroko rozwijających się gałęzi studiów prehistorycznych, ponieważ pozwalają na obszerny wgląd w przeszłą gospodarkę, wczesny przemysł, a także technologię, umiejętności organizacyjne i sieć szlaków handlowych, a tym samym międzyregionalne kontakty. Na terenie Polski i generalnie Europy Środkowej, jednym z najważniejszych surowców krzemiennych był chert górnojurajski, tzw. krzemień czekoladowy. W artykule przedstawiamy wstępne wyniki naszych badan na terenie kopalni krzemienia czekoladowego w Porębie Dzierżnej, stanowisko 24 (Wyżyna Krakowsko-Częstochowska, południowa Polska). W 2013 r. odkryto tam wychodnie krzemienia czekoladowego wraz z antropogenicznym reliefem, wskazującym na działalność prehistorycznych górników. W ostatnim czasie na tym terenie podjęto prace wykopaliskowe, w wyniku których zarejestrowano pozostałości szybów górniczych, hałd i bogate ślady warsztatów produkcyjnych. Złoża krzemienia czekoladowego były wcześniej znane tylko z rejonu Gór Świętokrzyskich, ok 130 km na północny-wschód od stanowiska. Podjęte badania mają zatem istotny wpływ na istniejące interpretacje związane z pozyskiwaniem, użytkowaniem i dystrybucją krzemienia czekoladowego przez społeczności prehistoryczne w Europie Środkowej.</em></p> Magdalena Sudoł-Procyk Maciej Krajcarz Magdalena Malak Dagmara H. Werra Copyright (c) 2021 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-03-10 2021-03-10 73 2 10.23858/SA/73.2021.2.2546 The Trzciniec Cultural Circle barrow from Nieciecz Włościańska in the Southern Podlasie https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2580 <p><strong>Abstract:</strong></p> <p>The societies of the Trzciniec Cultural Circle (TCC) were characterized by a complex and unique funeral rite. Despite its multidimensionality, it is possible to identify a number of patterns repeated in the ritual activity of these populations. This especially concerns barrow cemeteries erected during the classical phase of TCC development. To date, these types of structures are known from the southern (upland) provinces of this cultural formation. However, the barrow from Nieciecz Włościańska in Southern Podlasie that is comprehensively described here is the first richly equipped monument discovered in the northeastern (lowland) province of the TCC. The aim of this article is the complex characterization of the barrow and the interpretation of remains associated with the funeral rite. The authors apply standard archaeological methods supported by typochronological and radiocarbon analyzes to establish the chronology of this feature. The presented data is essential and crucial for understanding the northerneastern area of the TCC, which remains insufficiently recognized to date.</p> Jan Romaniszyn Przemysław Makarowicz Jacek Górski Jakub Affelski Antoni Smoliński Copyright (c) 2021 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-03-10 2021-03-10 73 2 10.23858/SA/73.2021.2.2580 Bronze bracelets deposit from Niewierszyn by the Pilica River https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1717 <p>In the autumn of 2017 in Niewierszyn in the Aleksandrów commune, a deposit of two bronze bracelets was discovered. The discovery site was on the edge of the Pilica floodplain terrace.<br>The bracelets were almost identical in size and ornamentation. Also, the chemical composition of the bronze from which they were made was very similar. It may be hypothesised that the ornaments were made by the same manufacturer, probably at a similar time. Based on the analysis of the form and ornamentation, the bracelets in question can be dated to HA1. This dating corresponds to the settling of the areas in the Pilica river basin by communities associated with the Konstantynów Łódzki group, characterized by features of the early Urnfield culture. Virtual modelling of casting and an experimental cast were used to elucidate the manufacturing technique. Apart from a chronological and cultural analysis, the text attempts to show the hoard against a wider (micro-regional) settlement background, including through potential visibility analysis.</p> Radosław Janiak Bartłomiej Januszewicz Bogusław Pisarek Jerzy Sikora Jacek Ziętek Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-04-17 2020-04-17 73 2 10.23858/SA/73.2021.2.1717 Logboat Discovered in Lake Lubanowo, Western Pomerania https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2704 <p>The paper presents a logboat found by an expedition from the University of Warsaw in Lake Lubanowo (northwestern Poland) during an underwater archaeological survey in 2020.&nbsp;It is the first logboat made of beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) registered in the area of Poland. The conventional radiocarbon date is 2350±30 BP; thus, the vessel may be attributed to the Jastorf or Pomeranian culture, as it was found in the border area between the territories of both units. Only a few logboats are known from the period preceding the Middle Ages in Poland. Other untypical traits are a transom, and a carefully formed beak-shaped bow. In the prow there is a rectangular hollow with a circular perforation inside of unclear function. One may consider it a fastening of an outrigger or other kind of floating attachment but also perhaps that the bow slot was intended either for a figurehead, for mooring, or to hold a torch during night-time fishing, or even functioned as a ‘stick-in-the-mud’ – type anchor.</p> Bartosz Kontny Copyright (c) 2021 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-04-10 2021-04-10 73 2 10.23858/SA/73.2021.2.2704 Burial of a mounted warrior with Ringknaufschwert-type sword from the necropolis in Ostrów, Przemyśl District https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2815 <p class="western" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span lang="en-GB">During the excavation of the Przeworsk culture necropolis at Site 21 in Ostrów, Przemyśl District, a richly furnished burial of a mounted warrior was found. The burial, which can be dated to the developed stage of the Early Roman period based on the grave goods, stood out through the lavishness of its grave inventory. Among other objects, the grave goods included a sword with a ring-like pommel, known as a Ringknaufschwert, two spearhead, one of them with punched decoration, and elements of horse tack. There also were ornaments and dress items, particularly noteworthy among them a gold pelta-shaped pendant decorated with granulation.</span></span></p> Sabina Stempniak-Kusy Anna Lasota-Kuś Copyright (c) 2021 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-10-17 2021-10-17 73 2 10.23858/SA/73.2021.2.2815 The Cherniakhov Culture in Olbia Pontica in the light of Polish-Ukrainian excavations 2016-2018 https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2166 <p class="Tekst"><span lang="EN-US">In the paper will be presented the results of archaeological research done by a Polish-Ukrainian team in the years 2016-2018 at the archaeological site Olbia Pontica. The main result of this excavations is the thesis, strongly documented in the archaeological finds, that the last inhabitants of Olbia left this place at the beginning of the 5th century AD and that during the last period of its existence Olbia was strongly connected with the Cherniakhov culture. Additionally, thanks to major concentration of animal bones, the finds allowed research into the meat diet of the inhabitants of Olbia in the 4th century AD. The bone finds also seem to confirm a climate change in that century too.</span></p> Alfred Twardecki Alla Buiskikh Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 73 2 10.23858/SA/73.2021.2.2166 Archaeobotanical results from early medieval Radom, Central Poland, with a special emphasis on the oldest finds of bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum) https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2305 <p>The article presents one of the most interesting results of an archaeobotanical analysis of material from the early medieval settlement complex in Radom. These results provided data on useful plants and the paleoenvironment of the site. In the case of two species, it was possible to designate specific sites of their origin. <br>The most interesting species mentioned above are Origanum vulgare and <em>Vaccinium uliginosum</em>. The first one could only grow at one site, slightly away from the settlement. Regarding the second species, the closest sites of occurrence of <em>V. uliginosum</em> can presently be found 40 km from the excavated site. This is quite a long distance from the point of view of early medieval man. It is worth emphasising that the finds of bog bilberry are the oldest remains of <em>V. uliginosum</em> that have been discovered at a Polish archaeological site.</p> Grzegorz Skrzyński Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-09-03 2020-09-03 73 2 10.23858/SA/73.2021.2.2305 Vegetation on the Wawel Hill, Cracow (Poland) in the early Middle Ages based on the fragmentary pollen record. Archaeological research excavation in the basement of building No. 9 https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2020 <p>Palynological research was carried out on layers archaeologically dated to the early Middle Ages in the basement of the former Austrian hospital at Wawel. The interpretation was based on the sparse number of sporomorphs presented in the samples, not on the percentages.<br>At the end of the first millennium, on the Wawel Hill and in its vicinity, an open landscape developed with a mosaic of plant communities, including ruderal ones, fields, pastures, and meadows, as well as bushes and forests. Sporomorphs reached the analysed area partially naturally, with pollen rain from plants growing at sites in the Wawel Castle itself and from the immediate or further surroundings of the Wawel Hill. Some sporomorphs reached the examined layers because of human activity: partly accidentally during normal life activities, and partly with material goods brought to Wawel for utility purposes. The interpretation is consistent with the results of palaeobotanical studies from other analysed sites in Wawel (Wasylikowa et al. 2006; Nalepka 2009).</p> Dorota Nalepka Andrzej Kukliński Adam Walanus Katarzyna Cywa Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 73 2 10.23858/SA/73.2021.2.2020 Touchstones from Early Medieval chamber graves in Ciepłe, Eastern Pomerania https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2669 <p>The precious metals of the early medieval period were the same as those of today. Knowing their purity was essential, which means that assaying and refining were of great importance. Touchstones have been used to assess the quality of precious metals since antiquity. Stone artefacts initially identified as whetstones were unearthed in two of the most prestigious chamber graves discovered at the cemetery in Ciepłe. Traces of precious and non-ferrous metals on the surface of the object from Grave 42 proved that this artefact was a touchstone. It is probable that the phyllite stone from the other grave served the same purpose. Tools of this type are often found in high-prestige burials in Europe, in some cases together with balance scales and weights, which suggests that the individuals in whose graves they were deposited had access to precious metals. Therefore interpreting touchstones as a reliable indicator of the high social standing of the deceased seems entirely reasonable.</p> Sławomir Wadyl Jakub Karczewski Copyright (c) 2021 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-03-10 2021-03-10 73 2 10.23858/SA/73.2021.2.2669 High medieval fish-shaped needle case from Wolin. From the Studies on the Culture of the Elite https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2757 <p>Artykuł prazentuje opracowania igielnika odkrytego w 2013 r. podczas badań na terenie średniowiecznego portu w Wolinie na Pomorzu w Polsce. Ten rzadki zabytek został wykonany z poroża i ma kształt ryby. Kwerenda literatury ujawniła zaledwie sześć podobnych zabytków w Europie Środkowej i Wschodniej - trzy w Polsce i kolejne trzy w Rosji i na Ukrainie. Wszystkie zostały odkryte w ważnych osiedlach i grodach danego terytorium i są przykładem wyrobów elitarnych rzemiosła XII w.</p> Andrzej Janowski Copyright (c) 2021 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-10-16 2021-10-16 73 2 10.23858/SA/73.2021.2.2757 Christian textual amulet on a lead sheet from Rękawczyn in Greater Poland Province https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2498 <p><span lang="en-GB">The subject of this article is the discovery of a lead amulet with an engraved Latin inscription. It was found in Rękawczyn (the eastern part of Greater Poland) in 2018 during research conducted by the District Museum in Konin. This artefact is the first and so far only find of its kind in a Polish context. It was identified by comparing it to similar finds from Germany and Bohemia from the 11<sup>th</sup>-13<sup>th</sup> centuries that bear apotropaic Latin inscriptions. The text on the amulet consists of 24 lines, which are barely legible and which contain a long quotation from the Gospel of John followed by an apotropaic formula with magical words. The reconstruction of the text is accompanied by a tentative interpretation and commentary. The palaeographical analysis of the script (Gothic minuscule) dates the amulet to the second half of the 14<sup>th</sup> century. The study presents the amulet in the wider context of similar inscriptions of European origin.<br></span></p> Daniela Urbanová Dalibor Havel Petra Mutlová Konrad Knauber Katarzyna Schellner Krzysztof Gorczyca Copyright (c) 2021 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-03-10 2021-03-10 73 2 10.23858/SA/73.2021.2.2498 Unique versus unusual – some comments on the Globular Amphora culture cemetery at the Złota-Gajowizna site https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2713 <p>The article is inspired by the new paper (Witkowska<em> et al.</em> 2020) “The cemetery of the Globular Amphora culture community at the Złota-Gajowizna site in the light of radiocarbon analysis and dendrochronology“. It delivers some remarks on the famous GAC necropolis, focusing mostly on the issues concerning the layout of the cemetery and interpretation of various funerary features.</p> Elżbieta Sieradzka Copyright (c) 2021 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-04-10 2021-04-10 73 2 10.23858/SA/73.2021.2.2713 On the synchronization of the chronology of phenomena and artifacts https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2719 <div>&nbsp;The article presents a slightly different point of view on the issues related to the chronology and significance of the Chotyniec agglomeration (SE Poland) from the one presented in the discussion by Denys Grechko published in the 72<sup>nd</sup> volume of Sprawozdania Archeologiczne. The author highlights the importance of Grechko’s contribution in clarifying the chronology and provenance of biconical glass beads, which should be considered eastern imports. The polemical remarks concern the dating of the hillfort in Chotyniec and the entire Chotyniec agglo-meration. The current state of research does not authorize drawing categorical conclusions that would limit its use to the end of the 7<sup>th</sup> and early 6<sup>th</sup> centuries BC. This is contradicted by the entire series of radiocarbon dates and other premises. With regard to the Pomeranian culture, it was shown that it is not justified to distinguish the Lusatian-Pomeranian stage in south-eastern Poland. At the same time, new sources of the Jastorf culture were indicated.</div> Sylwester Czopek Copyright (c) 2021 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-04-10 2021-04-10 73 2 10.23858/SA/73.2021.2.2719 (Review) Martin Oliva, Těžba a rituál, paměť a transformace. Uzavírky šachet a obětiny z doby bronzové v Krumlovském lese https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2347 Elżbieta Trela-Kieferling Copyright (c) 2021 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-03-10 2021-03-10 73 2 10.23858/SA/73.2021.2.2347 (Review) Joanna Zagórska-Telega, Obrządek pogrzebowy ludności kultury przeworskiej nadliswarciańskiego regionu osadniczego w młodszym i późnym okresie rzymskim https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2754 Bogumiła Wolska Copyright (c) 2021 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-10-16 2021-10-16 73 2 10.23858/SA/73.2021.2.2754 On the issue of dating Christian burials. (Review) Andrii Fylypchuk, Arkheolohiia khrystyianskykh nekropoliv litopysnoho Plisneska https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2599 Vira Hupalo Iryna Lutsyk Copyright (c) 2021 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2021-03-10 2021-03-10 73 2 10.23858/SA/73.2021.2.2599