Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa <p><em>Sprawozdania Archeologiczne </em>is a reviewed polish archeological journal, published in english language, since 1955 by Cracow branch of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Main scopes of journal are dedicated to international community of archeologists and also other people interested in prehistory of Ancient and New World.</p> Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk en-US Sprawozdania Archeologiczne 0081-3834 Journeys of the mind: cognitive landscapes, symbolic dialects, and networked identities in the European Neolithic https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2260 <p>Although the notion that the past was populated by cultural spheres containing relatively homogenous populations is pervasive, nuanced considerations of intra-culture variability allow for the recognition of local or regional identities that were simultaneously connected to but distinct from an overarching cultural sphere. This requires the identification of multiple interrelated cultural constituents and the recognition of a kind of cultural layering in which the identity or identities salient for members of a particular group are conceptualized as consisting of variably articulating categories that interact with and depend upon each other. Our approach to cultural variability and identity construction is based on this view and posits that cultural spheres studied in archaeological contexts can be divided into distinct but related cultural subgroups or dialects based on variations in material cultural data and studied independently or comparatively.</p> Kathryn M. Hudson Janusz Kruk Sarunas Milisauskas Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.2260 Spondylus shells at prehistoric sites in Poland https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1713 <p>This article presents the results of research concerning shell ornaments discovered in Poland and described in the literature as made of Spondylus shells. Our study focuses on the identification and revision of these artefacts in terms of species, ornament types, and locations of discovery. Additionally, we address the issue of the role of Spondylus shell ornaments and their meaning to the Neolithic communities inhabiting the area of present-day Poland. Our research involved specialist analyses, which allowed us to identify seven Spondylus shell artefacts discovered at five archaeological sites. The strontium isotope analysis 87Sr / 86Sr indicated the Quaternary age of the shells, confirming that they were contemporaneous with prehistoric communities and originated from areas located around the Mediterranean Sea. Presenting the results of our study, we would like to join a wider discussion on the importance of Spondylus shell ornaments in Central Europe in the Neolithic period.</p> Aldona Kurzawska Iwona Sobkowiak-Tabaka Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.1713 To smooth or not to smooth? A traceological and experimental approach to surface processing of Bronze and Iron Age ceramics https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2275 <p>The biographic approach – that is, tracing artefacts’ ‘lives’ from production, through their use, and finally to their deposition – is commonly applied in the analysis of lithic, flint, and metal artefacts. Objects made of clay, although the most common artifacts at many prehistoric sites, are rarely subject to such studies. In this paper, we focused on the short span of time during the “life” of a ceramic object when its surfaces were smoothed or/and burnished. Both are typical properties of Bronze/early Iron Age pottery found in today’s Poland. We studied two factors that influenced the desired final effect: the vessel drying time and the applied tool(s). To accomplish this study, we combined the results of observations of 46 samples from three settlements and two cemeteries in southwestern Poland, as well as the analysis of experimental reference samples. We demonstrated that the drying time was crucial, while the tool kit was composed of rather simple, mostly unprepared, objects such as pebbles or pieces of antler. In the smoothing process, we also observed a connection between surface selection (internal/external) and the purpose to which the vessel was put (settlement/funerary).</p> Aleksandra Gawron-Szymczyk Dagmara Łaciak Justyna Baron Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.2275 The Chotyniec agglomeration and its importance for interpretation of the so-called Scythian finds from south-eastern Poland https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1865 <p>Artefacts of eastern provenance, so-called Scythian ones, have been registered in Polish areas for a long time. In the western part of Polish lands, they were most often linked with Scythian invasions, and this explanation of finds was emphasized by destroyed settlements. In eastern Poland, the presence of similar artefacts, was interpreted rather in the context of contacts with the forest-steppe zone, and their almost neighbourly character was confirmed by characteristic decorations and parts of clothing. Discoveries related to the fortified settlement in Chotyniec (south-eastern Poland), together with accompanying settlements from the same time, allow for a slightly different view on the so-called Scythian finds recorded within the eastern groups of the Lusatian circle. The agglomeration should be treated as the farthest northwest enclave of the forest-steppe variant of the Scythian culture and as transmitter of certain cultural patterns. It is also a cultural phenomenon that plays a key role in the reception of the so-called eastern cultural elements.</p> Katarzyna Trybała-Zawiślak Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.1865 Roman and Early Byzantine finds from Japanese Archipelago – a critical survey https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1712 <p>Artifacts discovered on the Japanese archipelago, which are interpreted as being of Roman and Byzantine pro-venance, are critically discussed in the following article. In light of chemical analyses, some of the glass artifacts found, including beads and vessels, are related to the glass typical of Mediterranean workshops. They were imported in the times of their production. New numismatic discoveries from Okinawa, dated to the fourth century, were found in layers associated with the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and cannot be contemporaneous with the glass imports. The silk textile from Shōsō-in, despite its superficial similarity to Early Byzantine art products, seems to be a Central Asian/Chinese imitation, probably woven in the workshops of Chang’an. Thus, finds of Mediterranean origin, produced in the Roman and Early Byzantine epochs, are insignificant in their number and their imports were isolated cases. However, their presence supports the thesis that the Japanese archipelago should be included as part of the ancient network of the Silk Road.</p> Bartłomiej Szymon Szmoniewski Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.1712 Comparative analysis of early medieval anthropomorphic wooden figurines from Poland. Representations of gods, deceased or ritual objects? https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1725 <p>Miniature anthropomorphic images, due to their unique character, have attracted the attention of archaeologists for a very long time. This text analyses the forms, significance and functions of items coming from the early Middle Ages, which were discovered in the area of Poland. The set of wooden objects is diverse in terms of form and probably also in terms of meaning. The biggest number of artefacts come from Pomerania, but some of them were found in other places. The Baltic Sea basin will be used as a broad comparative background during this analysis. Information from written sources and from broad anthropological reflection will also be used in an attempt to determine the functions and meanings of these miniature figurines. Thanks to this analysis, it will be possible to show the importance of anthropomorphic figures in the context of early medieval religion and beliefs.</p> Paweł Szczepanik Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.1725 Middle Palaeolithic flint materials from Central Poland. Case study of the site Polesie 1, Łowicz county, Łódź voivodship https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1728 <p>This paper deals with the presentation of flint artefacts of Middle Palaeolithic provenience discovered during the excavations at the site of Polesie 1 in the central part of Central Poland. An in-depth analysis of its morphology, taphonomy and readable technological features helped uncover some elements of the products of the Micoquian tradition. This article discusses these extraordinary findings in the context of their importance as the northern-most such finds on the map of Middle Palaeolithic sites in Poland. Selected elements of research on paleoenvironmental conditions of the studied area are also presented as key points in the discussion on the possibilities of researching the Neanderthal settlement ecumene within the Polish Lowland.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Marcin Wąs Lucyna Domańska Seweryn Rzepecki Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.1728 “Raptus Sabinae?” complemented: molecular genetic studies on a female calvarium of the Bandkeramik settlement of Rovantsi in Volhynia (UA) https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1844 <p>A fragmented human cranial calotte was discovered in a Bandkeramik (LBK) settlement context at Rovantsi in Volhynia (UA). The female calvarium of a mature woman with an age of about 45-50 years was uncovered in the deepest part of a settlement pit. It can be dated to round about 5,250 BC. PCR-based molecular genetic analyses were successfully performed on these extremely rare skeletal remains from the Early Neolithic of Ukraine. The female family line can be assigned to haplogroup T2, in which it represents the lineage T2c1d+152. The woman was lactose intolerant, like most LBK individuals. Her hair colour was brown, and her eye colour was found to be hazel.</p> Janine Mazanec Susanne Hummel Thomas Saile Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.1844 South-East Black Sea coast in Early Holocene period (according to interdisciplinary archaeological investigations in Kobuleti site) https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2261 <p>The paper presents the results of interdisciplinary research carried out at the Kobuleti Early Holocene site. Typological and use-wear analyses of stone artifacts helped to define the main branch of the economy of humans at the site. Palynological studies were conducted to reconstruct the paleoenvironment. The investigated plant spores proved that the climate in the Early Holocene was warm. Definition of an absolute date by means of the radiocarbon method (<sup>14</sup>C) represents an innovation conducted in the study of the Stone Age in Ajara.</p> Guram Chkhatarashvili Valery Manko Amiran Kakhidze Ketevan Esakiya Maia Chichinadze Marianna Kulkova Mikhail Streltcov Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.2261 Textile impressions on Trypillia culture pottery from Ogród and Verteba Cave sites in Bilcze Złote https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1847 <p>Due to the limited number of materials associated with textile production from the Neolithic and Eneolithic, especially in regard to Eastern Europe, its indirect remains present an important and valuable source of information. One of the materials that testifies to textile production is pottery with textile impressions. The aim of this article is to present and discuss the results of microscopic analyses of textile impressions, identified on selected sherds of ceramic vessels from the Trypillia culture sites in Bilcze Złote, Ukraine. During the research, three basic categories of textile-related products were identified: pottery with intentional cord imprints, impressions of various types of non-woven textiles, as well as woven fabrics of varying thickness and density. This article also highlights the issue of using textiles in the technological process of pottery manufacturing. Microscopic analysis of textile impressions opens up new research possibilities in the recognition and reconstruction of the weaves and twists of particular types of fibres, and provides a solid foundation for comparative studies.</p> Weronika Skrzyniecka Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.1847 The cemetery of the Globular Amphora culture community in the Złota-Gajowizna site in the light of radiocarbon analysis and dendrochronology https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2116 <p>This paper presents a new series of absolute age determinations from the Złota-Gajowizna site. These are the first chronometric data from the most important necropolis of the central group of the Globular Amphora culture. The obtained dendrochronological data, which are unique for the sites of the Late Neolithic in Poland, made it possible to specify the results of the calibration. A new interpretation of the arrangement of the cemetery has been proposed, which is the starting point for determining the GAC funeral rite in the Sandomierz Upland.</p> Barbara Witkowska Janusz Czebreszuk Barbara Gmińska-Nowak Tomasz Goslar Marzena Szmyt Tomasz Ważny Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.2116 Złota culture grave from Kleczanów, Sandomierz district, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1846 <p>In 2014, a niche grave linked with the Złota culture was accidentally discovered in Kleczanów (Sandomierz district, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship). An approximately 25-year-old man was inhumed inside. He was crippled: one of his legs was shorter as a result of an improperly healed fracture. His body was subjected to magical rituals. For example, his skull was separated from the rest of the body and placed in a stone-lined cache. The grave inventory was composed of at least three vessels (a mug with a handle and two amphorae), two bone plaques (belt elements), a bone awl, and a flint arrowhead, as well as animal bones (a pig mandible, limb bones of the following animals: roe deer, medium-sized bird, and sheep or goat). A <sup>14</sup>C date obtained from a bone fragment allows us to date the grave to the beginning of the 3<sup>rd</sup> millennium BC.</p> Monika Bajka Marek Florek Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.1846 Early Bronze Age barrow in Jawczyce, site 1, Wieliczka Foothills, Lesser Poland https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2016 <p>Barrow 11 at site 1 in Jawczyce is the first burial mound in the Wieliczka Foothills, and also in the whole of Lesser Poland, dated to the 19<sup>th</sup> and 18<sup>th</sup> centuries BC and associated with the late phase of the Mierzanowice culture. The grave under the mound had a wooden construction, and within it were found faience beads as well as four flint arrowheads. The interment was not preserved. The radiocarbon date acquired from charcoal is 3580±35 BP (Poz-101091), which is 1974-1888 BC after calibration. This dating can be correlated with the beginnings of the late phase of the Mierzanowice culture. The mound in Jawczyce combines older Final Neolithic traditions (the barrow) with Early Bronze ones (the grave goods, arrangement of the deceased). Therefore, it significantly supplements current knowledge of the funeral rite of the Mierzanowice culture.</p> Paweł Jarosz Jerzy Libera Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.2016 Classification and chronology of the collection of arrowheads from ash-hill found in hillfort of the Scythian Cultural Circle in Chotyniec, site 1, Jarosław district https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1734 <p>he paper presents the results of a typo-chronological analysis of arrowheads from the ash-hill found in the hillfort of the Scythian cultural circle in Chotyniec, site 1, Jarosław province. During the 2016-2018 excavation campaigns, 38 such specimens were discovered. All arrowheads from Chotyniec could be linked to the Northern Black Sea region, where they have good analogies. Thanks to a detailed chronological analysis of the arrowheads, using the data from quiver sets from Scythian graves, it was possible to establish that they could be dated between the end (or maybe even the second half) of the 7<sup>th</sup> century to the middle of the 6th century B.C. Referring to chronological schemes of the Scythian cultural circle, the described collection of artefacts would be linked to the final phases of archaic Scythia (stage ESC-3), which are synchronous with the second half of the HaD1 and the HaD2 phase in the periodization of cultures of Central Europe.</p> Marcin Burghardt Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.1734 Graves of the beginning of the Early Iron Age in the barrow 1 of the “Rybkhoz” (“Fish farm”) Group in the Lower Dniester region https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2023 <p>Two graves of the Pre-Scythian period (Chernogorovka culture) from barrow 1 of the “Rybkhoz” (“Fish farm”) group near Glinoe village, Slobodzeya district, on the left bank of the Lower Dniester are considered on the broad background of analogies. The issues of chronology and morphology of some categories of adornments are analyzed. Particular attention is drawn to burial 8 with two bronze temporal pendants. There are no analogies to these adornments in the materials of the Chernogorovka culture. The decorative endings of these pendants resemble the design of the backs of the eastern Mediterranean (“nodular”) fibulae, especially items with three spherical or biconical thickenings. Rings-pendants from burial 14 do not find complete matches among the adornments of the Chernogorovka culture. At the same time, these products are similar to adornments from contemporaneous North Caucasian sites due to their massiveness and non-closed ends. Both graves date back to the 9<sup>th</sup> – the first half of the 8<sup>th</sup> century BC.</p> Valchak Sergey B. Lysenko Sergey D. Gorbol Nikolai Yu. Razumov Sergey N. Telnov Nikolai P. Sinika Vitalij Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.2023 Archaeological discoveries linked to the “first generation” of the Avar conquerors living east of the Tisa during the 6th-7th centuries. The grave cluster in Nădlac - Site 1M. https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1864 <p>Four graves were excavated on site 1M at Nădlac. They could be dated to the the second part of the 6th century and the first part of the 7<sup>th</sup> century AD. Based on the <sup>14</sup>C analysis, grave 86 can most probably be dated between 532 and 609 AD. This result indicates that the woman inhumed in the grave, aged 40-55 years, was very probably an immigrant who came from the East. The funerary rituals documented on site 1M in Nădlac can fit within the repertory of the regional environment characteristic of the area east of the Tisa in the the 6<sup>th</sup> and 7<sup>th</sup> centuries. Certain aspects of the ritual, however, like the burial of an entire calf in grave 86, draw attention to the danger of generalizations.<br>In addition, we have attempted to perform a brief analysis of various aspects of the development of the different concepts related to the nomadic lifestyle of the analyzed populations.</p> Erwin Gáll Florin Mărginean Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.1864 Digging the history. Absolute chronology of the settlement complex at Czermno-Cherven’ (eastern Poland). Research status and perspectives https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2095 <p>The article discusses the results of the latest interdisciplinary research of Czermno stronghold and its immediate surroundings. The site is mentioned in chroniclers’ entries referring to the stronghold Cherven’ (Tale of Bygone Years, first mention under the year 981) and the so-called Cherven’ Towns. Given the scarcity of written records regarding the history of today’s Eastern Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus in the 10<sup>th</sup> and 11<sup>th</sup> centuries, recent archaeological research, supported by geoenvironmental analyses and absolute dating, brought a significant qualitative change. In 2014 and 2015, the remains of the oldest rampart of the stronghold were uncovered for the first time. A series of radiocarbon datings allows us to refer the erection of the stronghold to the second half/late 10<sup>th</sup> century. The results of several years’ interdisciplinary research (2012-2020) introduce qualitatively new data to the issue of the Cherven’ Towns, which both change current considerations and confirm the extraordinary research potential in the archeology of the discussed region.</p> Tomasz Dzieńkowski Marcin Wołoszyn Iwona Florkiewicz Radosław Dobrowolski Jan Rodzik Irka Hajdas Marek Krąpiec Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.2095 A hillfort complex in Myślibórz in the Sudety Mountains https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1733 <p>The Myślibórz Gorge, located within the Kaczawy Foothills, is well-known to environmentalists and scholars studying the past. The investigations launched in the 1990s made it possible to determine the chronology of three of the archaeological sites in this area. In 2018, two hillforts – on the Kobylica and Golica hills – were investigated. Czech literature classifies such hillforts as the ostrožna-type. The excavations of these hillforts made it possible to establish to date them between the 9<sup>th</sup> and 10<sup>th</sup> centuries.<br>The hillforts were located on hilltops with similar altitudes above the sea level, less than 200 m from each other. Such a spatial arrangement made it possible to control the gateway to the Myślibórz Gorge from the north-east. Reasons for developing a defensive system in the southern part of the gorge are obscure, as is the role that two other early medieval hillforts played in it. Was it simply a warning system, or rather part of a comprehensive network of defensive sites?</p> Ewa Anna Lisowska Sylwia Rodak Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.1733 The Early Medieval barrows with kerbstones at the Leśnictwo Postołowo Site 11 in the Białowieża Forest (Szczekotowo range) https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1730 <p>In the western part of the Białowieża Forest, on the grounds of the Szczekotowo Range, one can find one of the largest and most interesting Early Medieval sepulchral complexes in the Middle Bug River basin. One part of it is the cemetery at Leśnictwo Postołowo Site 11, which includes five burial mounds surrounded by settings of kerbstones. In a barrow, which was excavated in 2017, an inhumation burial of a woman dating back to the 12<sup>th</sup> century and equipped with a necklace of glass beads was discovered. This site is another excavated cemetery from the Białowieża Forest area, where – in contrast to other regions of the Upper Narew and Middle Bug River basins – the barrow was the most common type of grave in the younger phase of the Early Middle Ages. This article presents various aspects of the investigated burial, which undoubtedly casts new light on our knowledge about the Mazovian-Rus’ cultural borderland during the period of state formation.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hanna Olczak Dariusz Krasnodębski Roman Szlązak Joanna Wawrzeniuk Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.1730 A unique early medieval pendant (kaptorga) from Opole Groszowice (Silesia, SW Poland) in the light of interdisciplinary archaeometric studies https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2015 <p>Finds of early medieval pendants, known as kaptorgas, are not common in Poland. For this reason, the <em>kaptorga</em> found in 1957 in Opole (Silesia), in southwest Poland, is all the more interesting. The artefact is housed in a museum, and on the occasion of its re-conservation, permission to conduct archaeometric studies was given. The <em>kaptorga</em> was subjected to analyses using nondestructive and minimally invasive techniques. Elemental tests with energy dispersive XRF and SEM-EDS spectrometers showed that the pendant is made of brass, not bronze sheet, as was originally thought. In its filling, there is a small fragment of plant-fiber thread (subjected to microscopic observations) and beeswax, which was identified using infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer.</p> Beata Miazga Sylwia Rodak Jeannette Jacqueline Lucejko Erika Ribechini Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.2015 The The remains of the “Battle of Kraków”, fought during World War I, as exemplified by site Sadowie-Kielnik 1, Kraków district https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/1705 <p>This article presents the archaeological remains of World War I that were discovered in 2016 at the multicultural site Sadowie-Kielnik 1, Kraków district. The fights that broke out there were part of the Battle of Kraków, which took place between November 16-25, 1914. The parties to the conflict were the armies of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the Russian Empire. The consequence of this battle was the halting of the attack of the Russian Army towards the west, which resulted in pushing them out of Galicia. A collection of 145 artefacts related to both armies was analysed. Additionally, archaeological features – field fortifications – were interpreted as well. This helped to explain their strategic function and to determine which of the two armies built them. It was also possible to determine the date of their construction and the time during which these fortifications were occupied by the army.</p> Jakub Michał Niebylski Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.1705 Chronological schemes of the Late Hallstatt period (HaD) in Central Europe: new opportuni-ties for the synchronization and refinement of dates https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2167 <p>Unification of regional chronological schemes is one of the key issues in Early Iron Age archaeology. The main markers of the Late Hallstatt period are Scythian arrowheads and antique imports. Biconical glass beads, produced at the Yahorlyk settlement (in the first third of the VIth century BC), were found in the Eastern European Forest-Steppe and in the area of the Tarnobrzeg Lusatian Culture. This period is synchronised with the HaD1 of Central Europe, phase III/1 of the TLC and the late group of burials of the second phase of the Kelermes period. Its final phase is associated with the so-called “Scythian invasions” in Central Europe, which led to the decline of the Chotyniec agglomeration, West-Podolian and East-Podolian groups. A few TLC complexes of the Grodzisko Dolne, site 22, can be dated somewhat later, to the middle or second half of the VI<sup>th</sup> century BC (HaD2). Also, at this time, the Pomeranian population appeared in the south-eastern area of the Lusatian tribes and a new culture model (post Lusatian-Pomeranian stage) arose.</p> Denis Grechko Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.2167 (Review) Andrzej Bronisław Pankalla, Konrad Kazimierz Kośnik, Indygeniczna psychologia Słowian. Wprowadzenie do realnej nauki. Kraków 2018: Universitas, 216 pp. https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2265 Joanna Wawrzeniuk Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.2265 (Review) Katarzyna Trybała-Zawiślak, Wczesna epoka żelaza na terenie Polski południowo-wschodniej – dynamika zmian i relacje kulturowe (The Early Iron Age in south-eastern Poland – dynamics of changes and cultural relations). Rzeszów 2019… https://journals.iaepan.pl/sa/article/view/2302 Halina Taras Copyright (c) 2020 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 72 2 10.23858/SA/72.2020.2.2302