Food-gifting in Gdańsk. Between Food Not Bombs and the Food Bank
The FoodCitizens? project compares cases of collective food procurement in three countries of the European Union (Poland, Italy and the Netherlands), specifically in three post-industrial cities of comparable size and population, namely Gdansk, Turin and Rotterdam. The project explores how networks of social actors organize themselves at comparable levels of intervention (foraging, namely gathering or producing food themselves; short food chains, namely engaging directly with producers; governance, namely rethinking markets, allotments and modes of procuring food that are relevant to urban procurement). The methodology of the project is to "compare by context" how these three levels materialize in the three cities: which social actors are actually engaged, through which concrete actions, and how politics and governance affect what is otherwise largely depicted as a mere issue of economics and/or sustainability (how to produce and procure food sustainably at affordable prices). This way, so-called (post)socialist food-ways assume a particular significance as not necessarily "the odd one out" in EU regions and economies, but rather as one of the possible identifiable cultural and economic pathways that collectivities take as they are informed by specific histories, territories, local economies, and social or demographic challenges. This article focuses on very different urban forms of food rescue and reallocation in Gdansk, namely through the grassroots activities Food not Bombs and through the Food Bank. Based on participant observation of relevant case studies in gentrifying Gdansk, the article focuses on the re-invention of "food waste", of food gifting, and food rescue.
Bataille, Georges. 1985. Visions of Excess. Selected Writings, 1927–1939. Edited and translated by Allan Stoekl. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Bataille, Georges. 1991. The Accursed Share. An Essay on General Economy. New York: Zone Books.
Bilewicz, Aleksandra, and Ruta Śpiewak. 2015. “Enclaves of activism and taste: Consumer cooperatives in Poland as alternative food networks.” SOCIO.HU, 3: 145–66.
Bilewicz, Aleksandra, and Ruta Śpiewak. 2018. “Beyond the ‘Northern’ and ‘Southern’ divide: food and space in Polish consumer cooperatives.” East European Politics and Societies and Cultures, 20(10): 1–24.
Bodnar, Judith. 2008. “Becoming bourgeois. (Postsocialist) utopias of isolation and civilization.” In Evil Paradises. Dreamworlds of Neoliberalism, edited by Davis, Mike, Monk and Daniel Bertrand, 140–151, New York: New Press.
Booth, Sue, and Jillian Whelan. 2014. “Hungry for change: the food banking industry in Australia.” British Food Journal, 116(9): 1392–1404.
Butcher, Lucy Meredith, Chester, Miranda Rose, Aberle, Leisha Michelle, Bobongie, Vanessa Jo-Ann, Davies, Christina, Godrich, Stephanie Louise, Milligan, Rex Alan Keith, Tartaglia, Jennifer, Thorne, Louise Maree, Begley, Andrea. 2014. “Foodbank of Western Australia’s Healthy Food For All.” British Food Journal 116(9): 1490–1505.
De Musso, Federico. 2010. “Omeopatia del rifiuto.” https://www.fondazionebassetti.org/it/focus/2010/07omeopatia_del_rifiuto.html (accessed 07.10.2020).
Dunn, Elizabeth. 2004. Privatizing Poland: Baby Food, Big Business, and the Remaking of Labor. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Ellis, Carolyn, and Arthur Bochner. 2000. “Autoethnography, personal narrative, reflexivity.” In Handbook of Qualitative Research, edited by Norman K. Denzinand and Yvonna S. Lincoln, 733–768, Sage: Thousand Oaks.
Ellis, Carolyn, Tony E. Adams, Arthur Bochner. 2010. “Autoethnography: An Overview.” Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung 12(1): Article 10.
“Food Not Bombs – Gdańsk. 2019. Podkreślamy oddolność inicjatywy, brak hierarchii i samoorganizację.” Chaos w mojej głowie 19: 18–23.
Friedman, Milton. 1975. There’s No Such Thing as a Free Lunch. University of Michigan: Open Court.
Garrone, Paola, Marco Melacini, and Alessandro Perego. 2014. “Surplus food recovery and donation in Italy: the upstream process.” British Food Journal 116(9): 1460–1477.
Geertz, Clifford. 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books.
Goodall, Bud. 2001. Writing the New Ethnography. Walnut Creek: Altamira Press.
Goodman, David, DuPuis, Melanie, and Michael Goodman. 2012. Alternative Food Networks: Knowledge, Practice, and Politics. New York: Routledge.
Grasseni, Cristina. 2018. “Food citizenship? Collective food procurement in European cities.” Europe Now, 20. https://www.europenowjournal.org/2018/09/04/food-citizenship/ (accessed 07.10.2020).
Harper, Krista. 1999. “Citizens or consumers? Environmentalism and the public sphere in postsocialist Hungary.” Radical History Review 74: 96–111.
Haukanes, Haldis, and Frances Pine. 2004. “Ritual and everyday consumption practices in the Czech and Polish countryside: conceiving modernity through changing food regimes.” Anthropological Journal on European Cultures 12: 103–130.
Hébert, Karen, and Diana Mincyte. 2014. “Self-Reliance beyond neoliberalism: rethinking autonomy at the edges of empire.” Environment and Planning Development: Society and Space 32(2): 206–222.
Herzfeld, Michael. 1997. Cultural Intimacy: Social Poetics in the Nation-state. New York: Routledge.
Herzfeld, Michael. 2009. “Polyglot perspectives.” Anthropological Quarterly 82(1): 311–330.
Heynen, Nik. 2010. “Cooking up non-violent civil-disobedient direct action for the hungry: ‘Food Not Bombs’ and the resurgence of radical democracy in the US.” Urban Studies 47(6): 1225–1240.
Horst, Hilje, Stefano Pascucci, and Wilma Bol. 2014. “The ‘dark side’ of Food Banks? Exploring emotional responses of Food Bank receivers in the Netherlands.” British Food Journal 116(9): 1506–1520.
Jacobson, Kristi, and Lori Silverbush. 2013. A Place at the Table. New York: Motto Pictures.
Jasanoff, Sheila. 2005. Designs on Nature. Science and Democracy in Europe and the United States. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Kenny, Tara, and Colin Sage. 2019. “Food surplus as charitable provision. Obstacles to re-introducing food as commons.” In Routledge Handbook of Food as a Commons, edited by Jose Luis Vivero-Pol, Tomaso Ferrando, Olivier De Schutter, Ugo Mattei, 281–294, Routledge: New York.
Kochanowicz, Jacek. 2004. “Trust, confidence, and social capital in Poland: a historical perspective.” In Trust and Democratic Transition in Post-communist Europe, edited by Ivana. Markova, 63–84, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kopczyńska, Ewa. 2015. „Co to jest jedzenie naturalne? Socjonatura na targowisku.” Studia Socjologiczne 4(219): 181–203.
Kopczyńska, Ewa. 2017. “Economies of acquaintances. Social relations during shopping at food markets and in consumers’ food cooperatives.” East European Politics and Societies and Cultures 31(3): 637–658.
Kropotkin, Pierre. 1995. The Conquest of Bread and Other Writings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Marx, Karl. 1990. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. Vol. 1. Translated by Ben Fowkes. New York: Penguin.
Mincyte, Diana. 2011. “How milk does the world good: vernacular sustainability and alternative food systems in post-socialist Europe.” Agriculture and Human Values, 29(1): 41–52.
Patel, Raj. 2012. Stuffed and Starved: The Hidden Battle for the World Food System. New York: Melville House.
Poppendieck, Janet. 1998. Sweet Charity?: Emergency Food and the End of Entitlement. London: Penguin Books.
Smith, Joe, and Petr Jehlička. 2007. “Stories around food, politics and change in Poland and the Czech Republic.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 32(3): 395–410.
Smith, Joe, and Petr Jehlička. 2013. “Quiet sustainability: fertile lessons from Europe’s productive gardeners.” Journal of Rural Studies 32: 148–157.
Soja, Edward. W. 2010. Postmetropolis. Critical Studies of Cities and Regions. London: Blackwell Publishers.
Związek Stowarzyszeń – Bank Żywności w Trójmieście. 2018. Sprawozdanie merytoryczne za rok 2018. http://bztrojmiasto.pl/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/sprawozdanie_merytoryczne_2018.pdf (accessed 07.10.2020).
Copyright (c) 2020 Ethnologia Polona
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.