The Qadan, the Jebel Sahaba Cemetery and the Lithic Collection
The Late Pleistocene, Early and Middle Holocene Nubian cultural sequence was constructed after the pioneering work done in Nubia in the 1960s (Irwin et al., 1968; Wendorf ed. 1968c; Marks 1970; Nordström ed. 1972). Most of the prehistoric sites located by the expeditions during the Nubian Campaign were surface concentrations and their dating was made on the basis of their location on ancient Nile deposits attested at different levels: the Dibeira-Jer, Ballana, Sahaba, Birbet and Arkin formations (De Heinzelin 1968). Absolute elevation was also considered as relevant to a site’s date.
Within this cultural sequence, the Qadan (Shiner 1968a) was usually associated with the Sahaba Formation, whose beginning was more or less established at 16,500 BP (De Heinzelin 1968), and the Jebel Sahaba cemetery (Site 117) was attributed to this same cultural phase.
The Qadan sequence has been already discussed by the author (Usai 2008a) in a paper demonstrating that Shiner’s hypothesis that the Abkan Neolithic complex originated directly from the Qadan needed revision. This contribution continues this discussion but to suggest that it now appears that the Jebel Sahaba cemetery cannot be possibly associated with the Qadan. In doing so, it notes some possible discrepancies and some important factors.
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