Słowa kluczowe

Indigenous youth
livelihood prospects

Jak cytować

Wierucka, A., & Lidzbarski, T. (2020). BETWEEN OIL AND TOURISM – HUAORANI YOUTH’S PLANS FOR THE FUTURE. Etnografia Polska, 64(1-2).


This paper explores the occupational plans and prospects of Huaorani youth living in one of the most remote settlements in eastern Ecuador. A qualitative methodology was applied to assess how Indigenous young people negotiate their future and employment prospects. Our study demonstrates that youth living in the settlement studied do not plan to move to the city, but intend to lead a moderately traditional life while working in local tourism initiatives.


Bass Margot, Finer Matt, Jenkins Clinton, Kreft Holger, Cisneros-Heredia Diego, McCracken Shawn F., Pitman Nigel C.A., English Peter, Swing Kelly, Villa Gorky, Di Fiore Anthony, Voigt Christian C., Kunz Thomas H. 2010, Global conservation significance of Ecuador’s Yasuni National Park, PLOS ONE, Vol. 5, no.1,

Bremner Jasen Lee 2013, Population Mobility and Livelihood Diversification among Indigenous Peoples of the Ecuadorian Amazon (A dissertation submitted to the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of City and Regional Planning), Chapel Hill, DOI 10.17615/m3fw-e817.

Cabodevilla Miquel 1994, Los Huaorani, En la historia de los pueblos del Oriente, Cicame, Quito.

Cepek Michael 2018, Life in Oil. Cofan Survival in the Petroleum, University of Texas Press, Austin.

Davis Wade1996, One River. Explorations and Discoveries in the Amazon Rain Forest, Simon and Shuster, New York.

Davis Jason, Sellers Samuel, Gray Clark, Bilsborrow Richard, 2016, Indigenous Migration Dynamics in the Ecuadorian Amazon: A Longitudinal and Hierarchical Analysis, The Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 53, No. 11, pp. 1849–1864, DOI: 10.1080/00220388.2016.1262028.

Farrugia David 2015, The mobility imperative for rural youth: the structural, symbolic and non-representational dimensions rural youth mobilities, Journal of Youth Studies, Vol 19. No. 6, pp. 836–851, DOI: 10.1080/13676261.2015.1112886.

Garcia Eduardo 2012, Ecuador to Launch Oil Block Auction Amid Protest, Reuters 28.11.2012, (accessed 02.03.2018).

Gerlach Allen 2003, Indians, Oil and Politics. A Recent History of Ecuador, Scholarly Resources, Wilmington.

High Casey 2015, Victims and Warriors: Violence, history and memory in Amazonia,University of Illinois Press, Urbana.

Hutchins Frank 2007, Footprints in the Forest: Ecotourism and Altered Meanings in Ecuador’s Upper Amazon, Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Anthropology, Vol. 12, No.1, pp. 75–103.

Kimerling Judith 1991, Amazon Crude, Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington.

McSweeney Kendra, Jokisch Brad 2007, Beyond Rainforest: Urbanization and Emigration among Lowland Indigenous Societies in Latin America, Bulletin of Latin American Research Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 159–180.

Paymal Noemi, Sosa Catalina (ed.) 1993, Amazon Worlds. People and Cultures of Ecuador’s Amazon Region, Sinchi Sacha, Quito.

Puig Juan Falconi 2012, The world failed Ecuador on its Yasuní initiative, The Guardian 19.09.2013.

Rival Laura 1996, Hijos del Sol, padres del jaguar. Los Huaorani de ayer y hoy, Abya Yala, Quito.

Rival Laura 2000, Formal Schooling and the Production of Modern Citizens in the Ecuadorian Amazon, [in:] Schooling the Symbolic Animal. Social and Cultural Dimensions of Education, B.A.U. Levinson et al. (eds.), Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, LondonNew York.

Rival Laura 2002, Trekking Through History. The Huaorani of Ecuadorian Amazon, Columbia University Press, New York.

Rival Laura 2014, Encountering nature through fieldwork: expert knowledge, modes of reasoning, and local creativity, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute,Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 218–236.

Rival Laura 2016, Huaorani Transformations in Twenty-first-century Ecuador. Treks in to the Future of Time, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Robarchek Clayton, Robarchek Carole 1998, Waorani: the Contexts of Violence and War, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Philadelphia.

Romero Simon, Krauss Clifford 2011, Ecuador’s Judge Orders Chevron to Pay $9 Billion, New York Times 14.02.2011.

Stocker Karen 2007, Identity as Work: Changing Job Opportunities and Indigenous Identity in the Transition to a Tourist Economy, Anthropology of Work Review, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 18–22.

Swing Kelly 2012, Science in Yasuni Sheds Light on Impacts of Oil Development in Amazon, National Geographic Society webpage, (accessed 03.07.2018).

Taylor Ann-Christi 1981, God-Wealth: the Achuar and the Missions, [w:] Cultural Transformations and Ethnicity in Modern Ecuador, N. Whitten (ed.), University of Illinois Press Urbana.

Wierucka Aleksandra 2015, Huaorani of the Western Snippet, Palgrave, New York.

Wierucka Aleksandra 2018, Living with Strangers: Huaorani and Tourism Industry in XXI Century, Anthropological Notebooks, No. 24 (1), pp. 97–110.

Virtanen Pirjo Kristiina 2012, Indigenous Youth in Brazilian Amazonia, Palgrave, New York.

Yost James 1981a, Twenty Years of Contact: the Mechanisms of Change in Wao ‘Auca’ Culture, [in:] Cultural Transformations and Ethnicity in Modern Ecuador, N. E. Whitten (ed.), University of Illinois Press, Urbana.

Yost James1981b, People of the Forest, [in:] Ecuador in the Shadow of the Volcanoes, P. Gordon-Warren, S. Curl (eds.), Libri Mundi, Quito.

Ziegler-Otero Laurence 2004, Resistance in an Amazonian Community. Huaorani Organizing against the Global Economy, Berghahn Books, New York.

Creative Commons License

Utwór dostępny jest na licencji Creative Commons Uznanie autorstwa 4.0 Międzynarodowe.