Pielgrzymowice – A Przeworsk culture iron smelting site from the Roman period in Silesia

  • Enrico Lehnhardt Institute of Prehistoric Archaeology, Department of History and Cultural Studies, Freie Universität Berlin Fabeckstr. 23-25 14195 Berlin, Germany Exzellenzcluster 264 – Topoi ‘The Formation and Transformation of Space and Knowledge in Ancient Civilizations’, Freie Universität Berlin, Topoi Building Dahlem Hittorfstraße 18 14195 Berlin, Germany https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7716-5036
  • Artur Błażejewski Department of Archaeology of the Barbaricum and Roman Provinces, Institute of Archaeology, University of Wrocław ul. Szewska 48 50-139 Wrocław, Poland https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1734-3945
  • Paweł Madera Iron Age Department, Archaeological Museum Wrocław ul. Cieszyńskiego 9 50-136 Wrocław, Poland
  • Julia Meister Chair of Geography I – Physical Geography, Institute of Geography and Geology Am Hubland 97074 Würzburg, Germany https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1385-4112

Abstrakt

In 2013 and 2014 fieldwork was carried out in the Widawa valley near Namysłów (Opole voivodeship) to investigatesites with iron smelting slag assumed to belong to Przeworsk culture. It was supposed that these surface sites dated back to the late pre-Roman Iron Age (phases A1–A3) and thus belonged to the earliest Przeworsk culture. To verify this chronological classification, we conducted surveys at various sites and investigated the structure of iron smelting and especially its chronological position at the Pielgrzymowice site (municipality Wilków) by trial trenching. This paper presents the results of geophysical and archaeological as well asarchaeobotanical investigations. Our studies in Pielgrzymowice show that iron smelting was carried out during the middle to late Roman period and under no circumstances during the late pre-Roman period. This unambiguous result is based on radiocarbon data from the lowest charcoal layer of a furnace and is supported by further absolute data from features in the surrounding area. The furnaces are those with a ‘very big’ slag pit, which are typical for the Roman period in Silesia and are themselves a relative means for chronological classification.

Pobrania

Dane pobrania nie są jeszcze dostepne

Bibliografia

Albert R. M. (2000). Study of ash layers through phytolith analyses from the Middle Paleolithic levels of Kebara and Tabun caves. Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona.

Albert R.M., Lavi O., Estroff L., Weiner S., Tsatskin A., Ronen A., Lev-Yadun S. (1999). Mode of occupation of Tabun cave, Mt carmel, Israel during the Mousterian Period: a study of the sediments and phytoliths. Journal of Archaeological Science, 26, 1249-1260. https://doi.org/10.1006/jasc.1999.0355

Albert R.M., Cabanes D. (2007). Fire in prehistory: An experimental approach to combustion processes and phytolith remains. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 56, 175-189.

Alexandre A., Meunier J.-D., Colin F., Koud j.-M. (1997). Plant impact on the biogeochemical cycle of silicon and relatedweathering processes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 61, 677-682. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/S0016-7037(97)00001-x

Andrzejowski J. (2010). The Przeworsk culture. A brief story (for the foreigners). In: u. Lund-hansen, A. Bitner-Wróblewska (eds.), Worlds Apart? Contacts across the Baltic Sea in the Iron Age. Network Denmark-Poland 2005-2008 (59-110). København-Warszawa: Det Kongelige Nordiske Oldskriftselskab – Państwowe Muzeum Archeologiczne.

Baron J. (2014). Kompleks osadniczy z epoki brązu, młodszego okresu przedrzymskiego, okresu wpływów rzymskich i wędrówek ludów. Analiza obiektów nieruchomych. In: M. Masojć (ed.), Obozowiska, osady, wsie. Wrocław-Widawa 17 (235-320). Wrocław: uniwersytet Wrocławski, Instytut Archeologii.

Błażejewski A. (1998) Obrządek pogrzebowy kultury przeworskiej. Wrocław: uniwersytet Wrocławski, Katedra Archeologii. Błażejewski A. (2011). Dorzecze Baryczy w okresie przedrzymskim, wpływów rzymskich i wędrówek ludów. In: G. Domański (ed.), Nadodrze w starożytności (127-140). Zielona Góra: Wydawnictwo Fundacji Archeologicznej.

Błażejewski A. (2013). Cultural changes in the upper Basin of the Odra River at the close of Antiquity. In: S. Kleingärtner, T.P. Newfield, S. Rossignol, D. Wener (eds.), Landscapes and Societies in Medieval Europe East of the Elbe (27-41), Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies.

Bronk Ramsey c. (2017). Methods for Summarizing Radiocarbon Datasets. Radiocarbon, 59/6, 1809-1833. https://doi.org/10.1017/RDc.2017.108

Brown D.A. (1984). Prospects and limits of a phytolith key for grasses in the central united States. Journal of Archaeological Science, 11, 345-368. https://doi. org/10.1016/0305-4403(84)90016-5

Brumlich M. (2010). Eisenverhüttung und -verarbeitung in der vorrömischen Eisenzeit. Funde von der hochfläche des Teltow. In: M. Meyer (ed.), haus – Gehöft – Weiler – Dorf. Siedlungen der Vorrömischen Eisenzeit im nördlichen Mitteleuropa. Berliner Archäologische Forschungen, 8. Rahden/Westf.,61-84.

Cabanes D., Burjachs F., Expósito I., Rodríguez A., Allué E., Euba I., Vergès j.M. (2009). Formation processes through archaeobotanical remains: The case of the Bronze Age levels in El Mirador cave, Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. In: R.M. Albert, M. Madella (eds.), Perspectives on Phytolith Research: 6th International Meeting on Phytolith Research. Quaternary International, 193, 160-173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. quaint.2007.08.002

Canti M.G. (2003). Aspects of the chemical and microscopic characteristics of plant ashes found in archaeological soils. CATENA, Achievements in Micromorphology, 54, 339-361. https://doi.org/10.1016/S03418162(03)00127-9

Ciołek R. (2008). Die Fundmünzen der römischen Kaiserzeit in Polen. Wetteren: Moneta.

Coe H.H.G., Alexandre A., Carvalho c.N., Santos G.M., da Silva A.S., Sousa L.O.F., Lepsch I.F. (2013). changes in holocene tree cover density in cabo Frio (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil): Evidence from soil phytolith assemblages. In: M. Madella, c. Lancelotti, M. Osterrieth (eds.), Comprehensive Perspectives on Phytolith Studies in Quaternary Research. Quaternary International, 287, 63-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. quaint.2012.02.044

Cordova C.E. 2013. c3 Poaceae and Restionaceae phytoliths as potential proxies for reconstructing winter rainfall in South Africa. In: M. Madella, c. Lancelotti, M. Osterrieth (eds.), Comprehensive Perspectives on Phytolith Studies in Quaternary Research. Quaternary International, 287, 121-140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. quaint.2012.04.022

Dąbrowska T. 1988. Wczesne Fazy kultury przeworskiej: chronologia, zasięg, powiązania. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe.

Dąbrowska T., Woźniak Z. (2005). Problem genezy kultury przeworskiej i oksywskiej. In: P. Kaczanowski, M.Parczewski (eds.), Archeologia o początkach Słowian (87-102), Kraków: Instytut Archeologii uniwersytetu jagiellońskiego.

Dietrich L., Meister j., Dietrich O., Notroff j., Kiep j., Heeb j., Beuger A., Schütt B. (submitted). The role of cereal processing at Early Neolithic Göbekli Tepe, southeastern Turkey. PLOS ONE.

Esteban I., Marean c.W., Fisher E.c., Karkanas P., cabanes D., Albert R.M. (2018). Phytoliths as an indicator of early modern humans plant gathering strategies, fire fuel and site occupation intensity during the Middle Stone Age at Pinnacle Point 5-6 (south coast, South Africa). PLOS ONE, 13, e0198558. https://doi.org/ 10.1371/journal.pone.0198558

Fraysse F., Pokrovsky O.S., Schott j., Meunier j.-D. (2009). Surface chemistry and reactivity of plant phytoliths in aqueous solutions. Chemical Geology, 258, 197-206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2008.10.003

Gindele R. (2015). Die römerzeitlichen Barbarensiedlungen von Livada/ciuperceni – Photovoltaik-Anlage GPSP Solaris und Supuru de Sus – Togul lui Cosmi. Neue Angaben bezüglich der rechteckigen Gruben mit gebrannten Wänden aus dem 2.-5. n. chr. im oberen Theiss-Becken. Dacia, 59, 83-126.

Ganzelewski M. (2000). Archäometallurgische untersuchungen zur frühen Verhüttung von Raseneisenerzen am Kammberg bei joldelund, Kreis Nordfriesland. In: A. haffner, h. jöns, j. Reichstein (eds.), Frühe Eisengewinnung in joldelund, Kr. Nordfriesland. Ein Beitrag zur Siedlungs- und Technikgeschicht Schleswigholsteins. 2. Naturwissenschaftliche untersuchungen zur Metallurgie- und Vegetationsgeschichte. Universitätsforschungen zur Prähistorischen Archäologie, 59, 3-100.

Godłowski K. (1985). Przemiany kulturowe i osadnicze w południowej i środkowej Polsce w młodszym okresie przedrzymskim i okresie rzymskim. Wrocław: Ossolineum.

Jenkins E. (2009). Phytolith taphonomy: a comparison of dry ashing and acid extraction on the breakdown of conjoined phytoliths formed in Triticum durum. Journal of Archaeological Science, 36, 2402-2407. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2009.06.028

Jöns H. (1997). Frühe Eisengewinnung in Jodelund, Kr. Nordfriesland. Ein Beitrag zur Siedlungs- und Technikgeschichte Schleswig-Holsteins 1. Bonn: Dr Rudolph hablet Gmbh.

Kolník T., Roth P. (2012). Pravouhlé jamové žiaroviská z doby rímskej. K výskytu a funkcii v kontexte výskumu v Pobedime. In: G. Březinová, V. Varsik (eds.), Archeológia na prahi histórie. K životnému jubileu

Karola Pietu. Nitra: Archeologický ústav Slovenske Akadémie Vied.

Kosicki A. (1996). Wstępne wyniki ratowniczych badań wykopaliskowych w Namysłowie, stan. 69. Śląskie Sprawozdania Archeologiczne, 37, 357-358.

Kosicki A. (2002). Produkcja żelaza w osadzie kultury przeworskiej w Namysłowie, gm. Namysłów, woj. opolskie. In: S. Orzechowski (ed.), Hutnictwo świętokrzyskie oraz inne centra i ośrodki starożytnej metalurgii żelaza na ziemiach polskich (117-120). Kielce: Wydawnictwo uniwersytetu Jana Kochanowskiego.

Lehnhardt E. (2019). Die Anfänge der Eisenverhüttung im Bereich der Przeworsk-Kultur, Berlin Studies of the Ancient World, 62. Berlin.

Madella M., Alexandre A., Ball T. (2005). International code for phytolith nomenclature 1.0. Annals of Botany, 96, 253-260. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mci172

Madella M., Lancelotti C. (2012). Taphonomy and phytoliths: A user manual. Quaternary International, 275, 76-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2011.09.008

Madera P. (2001). Starożytne hutnictwo żelaza na Śląsku, uniwersytet Wrocławski (unpublished PhD thesis).

Madera P. (2002). Ślady starożytnego hutnictwa żelaza na Śląsku w ujęciu chronologiczno-przestrzennym. In: S. Orzechowski (ed.), Hutnictwo świętokrzyskie oraz inne centra i ośrodki starożytnej metalurgii żelaza na ziemiach Polski (61-70). Kielce: Wydawnictwo uniwersytetu Jana Kochanowskiego.

Madera P. (2008). Ze studiów nad piecami dymarskimi z kotlinką „bardzo dużą” na Śląsku. In: A. Błażejewski (ed.), Labor et patientia. Studia archaeologica Stanisłao Pazda dedicata. (171-203), Wrocław: Instytut Archeologii uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego.

Meister J., Krause j., Müller-Neuhof B., Portillo M., Reimann T., Schütt B. (2017). Desert agricultural systems at EBA jawa (jordan): Integrating archaeological and paleoenvironmental records. Quaternary International, 9th International Meeting of Phytolith Research (IMPR) 434, Part B, 33-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. quaint.2015.12.086

Mulholland S.c., Rapp jr. G. (1992a). Phytolith Systematics – Emerging Issues. Advances in Archaeological and Museum Science 1. New York.

Mulholland S.c., Rapp jr. G. (1992b). A morphological classification of grass silica-bodies. In: S.c. Mulholland, G. Rapp jr. (eds.), Phytolith Systematics – Emerging Issues, Advances in Archaeological and Museum Science 1 (65-89).

New York. Muzolf B., Muzolf P. (2015). Bieniądzice, stan. 5, gm. Wieluń, woj. łódzkie – największe „pole paleniskowe”

kultury przeworskiej w Polsce. Zagadnienia funkcji i chronologii. In: L. Tyszler, E. Droberjar (eds.) Barbari superiores et interiores. Archaeology of the Barbrians 2014. Integration process of the Central European Barbaricum. Poland – Bohemia – Moravia – Slovakia, 409-432. łódź – Wieluń: Instytut Archeologii uniwersytetu łódzkiego, Muzeum Ziemi Wieluńskiej, Stowarzyszenie Naukowe Archeologów Polskich Oddział w łodzi.

Neumann K., Fahmy A., Lespez L., Ballouche A., huysecom E. (2009). The Early holocene palaeoenvironment of Ounjougou (Mali): Phytoliths in a multiproxy context. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 276, 87-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. palaeo.2009.03.001

Orzechowski S. (2013). Region żelaza. centra hutnicze kultury przeworskiej, Kielce: Wydawnictwo uniwersytetu Jana Kochanowskiego.

Öğüt B. (2016). Plant use from the grinding stones’ viewpoint: Phytolith analyses from Aeneolithic Monjukli Depe, Turkmenistan. Journal of Lithic Studies, 3, 359-377. Pazda S. (1970). Ze studiów nad kulturą wschodniopomorską na Dolnym Śląsku. Archeologia Polski, 15, 89-113.

Pazda S. (1980). Studia nad rozwojem i zróżnicowaniem lokalnym kultury przeworskiej. Studia Archeologiczne 10. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego. Pazda S. (1994). Brzeski rejon starożytnej produkcji żelaza (IV-V w. n.e.). Studia Archeologiczne 25. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego.

Pearsall D.M., Piperno D.R. (eds.) (1993). Current Research in Phytolith Analysis: Applications in Archaeology and Paleoecology. Philadelphia: university of Pennsylvania.

Pearsall D.M., Trimble M.K. (1984). Identifying past agricultural activity through soil phytolith analysis: a case study from the hawaiian Islands. Journal of Archaeological Science, 11, 119-133. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/0305-4403(84)90047-5

Pescheck c. (1939). Die Frühwandalische Kultur in Mittelschlesien (100 vor bis 200 nach Christus). Leipzig: curt Kabitsch Verlag.

Piperno D.R. (2006). Phytoliths: A Comprehensive Guide for Archaeologists and Paleoecologists. Lanham: AltaMira Press (Rowman & Littlefield).

Polcyn M., Polcyn I., Rovner I. (2001). A phytolith study of neolithic ploughing from the zagaje stradowskie site, Poland. In: j.D. Meunier, F. colin (eds.), Phytoliths - Applications in Earth Science and Human History (149-154). Lisse: cRc Press.

Portillo M., Albert R.M., henry D.O. (2009). Domestic activities and spatial distribution in Ain Abu Nukhayla (Wadi Rum, Southern jordan): The use of phytoliths and spherulites studies. In: R. M. Albert, M. Madella (eds.), Perspectives on Phytolith Research: 6th International Meeting on Phytolith Research. Quaternary International, 193, 174-183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. quaint.2007.06.002

Portillo M., Bofill M., Molist M., Albert R.M., (2013). Phytolith and use-wear functional evidence for grinding stones from the Near East. In: P.c. Anderson, c. cheval, A. Durand (eds.), Regards croisés sur les outils liés au travail des végétaux. An interdisciplinary focus on plant-working tools. XXXIII e rencontres internationales d’archéologie et d’histoire d’Antibes (205218). Antibes: Editions APDcA.

Portillo M., Kadowaki S., Nishiaki Y., Albert R.M. (2014). Early Neolithic household behavior at Tell Seker al-Aheimar (upper Khabur, Syria): a comparison to ethnoarchaeological study of phytoliths and dung spherulites. Journal of Archaeological Science, 42, 107-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2013.10.038

von zur Mühlen L. (1922). Über die Quarzgänge zwischen Zobten und Striegau in Schlesien. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, 74, 77-89.

Reimer P.j., Bard E., Bayliss A., Beck j.W., Blackwell P.G., Bronk Ramsey c., Grootes P.M., Guilderson T.P.,

haflidason h., hajdas I., hattž c., heaton T.j., hoffmann D.L., hogg A.G., hughen K.A., Kaiser K.F., Kromer B., Manning S.W., Niu M., Reimer R.W., Richards D.A., Scott E.M., Southon j.R., Staff R.A., Turney c.S.M., van der Plicht j. (2013). Intcal13 and Marine13 Radiocarbon Age calibration curves 0–50,000 Years cal BP. Radiocarbon, 51/4, 1111-1150. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200034202

Rodzińska-Nowak j. (2012). Gospodarka żywnościowa ludności kultury przeworskiej. Kraków: uniwersytet jagielloński Instytut Archeologii.

Saul h., Madella M., Fischer A., Glykou A., hartz S., craig O.E. (2013). Phytoliths in Pottery Reveal the use of Spice in European Prehistoric cuisine. PLOS ONE, 8, e70583. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0070583

Schiegl S., Lev-Yadun S., Bar-Yosef O., EI Goresy A., Weiner S. (1994). Siliceous aggregates from prehistoric wood ash: a major component of sediments in Kebara and hayonim caves (Israel). Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 43, 267-278.

Scott Cummings L. (2012). Phytolith and organic residue analysis of sediment from Stajnia cave, Poland, PRI Technical Report. https://doi.org/10.6067/ XcV8TQ616x

Shahack-Gross R., Albert R.-M., Gilboa A., Nagar-hilman O., Sharon I., Weiner S. (2005). Geoarchaeology in an urban context: The uses of space in a Phoenician monumental building at Tel Dor (Israel). Journal of Archaeological Science, 32, 1417-1431. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jas.2005.04.001

Shillito L.-M. (2011). Taphonomic observations of archaeological wheat phytoliths from Neolithic Çatalhöyük, Turkey, and the use of conjoined phytolith size as an indicator of water availability. Archaeometry, 53, 631-641. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.14754754.2010.00582.x

Sigaut F. (1989). Ernte und Erntegeräte. Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, 7, 518-527.

Strömberg c.A. (2004). using phytolith assemblages to reconstruct the origin and spread of grass-dominated habitats in the great plains of North America during the late Eocene to early Miocene. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 207, 239-275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2003.09.028

Suchan G. (2009). Osada kultury przeworskiej na stanowisku Domasław 10/11/12, pow. wrocławski. Śląskie Sprawozdania Archeologiczne, 51, 193-207.

Sulas F., Madella M. (2012). Archaeology at the microscale: micromorphology and phytoliths at a Swahili stonetown. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 4, 145-159. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520012-0090-7

Thelemann M. (2016). Human and Environment Interactions in the Environs of Prehistorical Iron Smelting Places in Silesia, Poland. PhD Thesis Freie universität Berlin 2016. https://refubium.fu-berlin.de/handle/ fub188/3328

Thelemann M., Bebermeier W., hoelzmann P., Lehnhardt E. (2017). Bog iron ore as a resource for prehistoric iron production in central Europe – A case study of the Widawa catchment area in eastern Silesia, Poland, Catena, 149, Part 1. 474-490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. catena.2016.04.002

Thelemann M., Bebermeier W., hoelzmann P., Schütt P. (2018). Landscape history since the Saalian Drenthe stadial in the Widawa catchment Area in Silesia, Poland: A case study on long-term landscape changes, Quaternary International, 463, Part A. 57-73. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2016.09.015

Thelemann M., Lehnhardt E., Bebermeier W., Meyer M. (2015). Iron, humans and Landscape – Insights from a Micro-Region in the Widawa catchment Area, Silesia. In: D. Knitter, W. Bebermeier, O. Nakoinz (eds.), Bridging the Gap – Integrated Approaches in Landscape Archaeology, eTopoi. Journal for Ancient Studies, Special Volume, 4, 109-138. T

Tomczak E. (1979). Wyniki ratowniczych badań wykopaliskowych w Dobrzeniu Małym, woj. Opole (stan. B). Sprawozdania Archeologiczne, 31, 167-191.

Tsartsidou G., Lev-Yadun S., Albert R.-M., Miller-Rosen A., Efstratiou N., Weiner S. (2007). The phytolith archaeological record: strengths and weaknesses evaluated based on a quantitative modern reference collection from Greece. Journal of Archaeological Science, 34, 1262-1275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2006.10.017

Tsartsidou G., Lev-Yadun S., Efstratiou N., Weiner S. (2009). use of space in a Neolithic village in Greece (Makri): phytolith analysis and comparison of phytolith assemblages from an ethnographic setting in the same area. Journal of Archaeological Science, 36, 2342-2352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2009.06.017

Twiss P.c. (1992). Predicted world distribution of c3 and c4 grass phytoliths. In: S.c. Mulholland, G. Rapp jr.

(eds.), Phytolith Systematics - Emerging Issues, Advances in Archaeological and Museum Science 1. New York, 113-128.

Twiss P.c., Suess E., Smith R.M. (1969). Morphological classification of grass phytoliths. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 33, 109-115. https://doi. org/10.2136/sssaj1969.03615995003300010030x

Ullrich B., Freibothe R. (2013). Bericht zu den geophysikalischen untersuchungen am Fundplatz Pielgrzymowice, Bericht 1327 / 2013, 12.11.2013 (unpublished typescript).

Weisskopf A., Harvey E., Kingwell-Banham E., Kajale M., Mohanty R., Fuller D.Q. (2014). Archaeobotanical implications of phytolith assemblages from cultivated rice systems, wild rice stands and macro-regional patterns. Journal of Archaeological Science, 51, 43-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2013.04.026

Żygadło L., Kamyszek L., Marciniak M., Suchan G. (2012). Osadnictwo kultury lateńskiej i kultury przeworskiej na stanowisku 10-12 w Domasławiu, gm. Kobierzyce, woj. dolnośląskie. Raport 2007-2008, 1, 483-508.

Opublikowane
2019-11-26
Jak cytować
Lehnhardt, E., Błażejewski, A., Madera, P., & Meister, J. (2019). Pielgrzymowice – A Przeworsk culture iron smelting site from the Roman period in Silesia. Przegląd Archeologiczny, 67, 177-230. https://doi.org/10.23858/PA67.2019.009
Dział
Artykuły
Share |