Wzorniki architektoniczne doby klasycyzmu : rozważania nad prospektywnym charakterem proponowanych rozwiązań


  • Ryszard Mączyński Katedra Historii Sztuki i Kultury, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, ul. Władysława Bojarskiego 1, 87-100 Toruń

Słowa kluczowe:

18-19 w. -- Europa, architektura klasycystyczna -- Europa, wzorniki architektoniczne



Pattern books, including those related to architecture, are a wide topic, frst of all because it is diffi cult to defi ne a pattern book precisely. According to "Słownik terminologiczny sztuk pięknych" [Terminological dictionary of arts], it is “a set of drawings, usually etched, including models of elements or ornaments used by artists as help in design”. Trying to categorise the wealth of illustrated publications on architecture available in the era of  classicism, one could consider them from the perspective of the addressee (since they were intended for both professionals and amateurs) or from the perspective of form (theoretical treatises or illustrate albums). The author does not attempt to give a comprehensive survey of the material, limiting the analysis to selected examples which demonstrate the inventiveness and attractiveness of pattern books, and their impact on contemporary architecture. It seems that in this last respect three categories of models can be differentiated: old but fashionable, new and fashionable, and finally new but unfashionable. The first category is exemplified by an analysis of the reception of the works of Andrea Palladio, a sixteenth-century Italian architect. He proposed brilliant and ingenious solutions which infl uenced architects in later centuries, regardless of changing tastes. His treatise I quattro libri dell’architettura (Venezia 1570) was carefully studied, as both baroque and classicist ar-chitects were able to draw inspiration from it. Palladio proposed unusually simple and sophisticated forms; his designs of villas, palaces and churches were admired and imitated throughout Europe. In the Enlightenment period it was very popular to link the central part of a palace with the outbuildings with galleries curved in quadrants or bent at a right angle; this solution had often been used by Palladio. A design that proved particularly intriguing for generations of ar-chitects was his Villa Rotonda (1566–1567), not only an admirable work of art but also a chal-lenge for architects to display mastery in their profession. In Poland those two Palladian motifs were applied, for example by Stanisław Zawadzki, who designed palaces in Śmiełów (1797) and Lubostroń (1800). To exemplify the second category (new and fashionable) the article explores the popular-ity of French pattern books published in the 18th century in Poland. They were particularly helpful to architects who grew up in the baroque tradition but in the course of their professional career wanted to embrace the most fashionable new style of classicism. An example of that tendency is the façade of the church of the Barefooted Carmelites in Warsaw, designed in 1761 or 1762 by Efraim Szreger. The architect modelled his design on the façade of the church of the Oratorian Fathers in Paris (1745–1750), whose picture was included in Architecture françoise by Jacques-François Blondel (Paris 1752–1756). Another example of that kind is a burgher house in Warsaw at the crossing of Kościelna and Zakroczymska Streets, built in 1770 by Jakub Fontana, who drew inspiration from the newly published pattern book by Jean-François Neufforge Recueil élémentaire d’architecture (Paris 1757–1768). The third category (new but unfashionable) is represented by two Polish pattern books of church architecture: Wzory kościołów parafi alnych [Models of parish churches] (Warszawa 1824) by Hilary Szpilowski and Budowy kościołów [Church-building] (Warszawa 1825) by Chrystian Piotr Aigner. Churches similar to designs proposed in those can be found, e.g. in Osmolin (1791) or Lipków (1793), but almost all were built before the publication of those books, which suggests that the books did not have much practical impact. The reason was that their meticulous designs of larger and smaller churches, requiring varied investments, raw materials and building skills, were epigonic: the classicist style was already receding so they did not bring any attractive practical proposals, being rather a survey of the building practice of the previous epoch. It is very telling that the only building that strictly follows one of Szpilowski’s designs from the pattern book, the wooden church in Chociszew near Czerwińsk (1830–1835), represents the neo-gothic style. The large number of publications on architecture proves beyond doubt that they were much in demand throughout Europe and attractive to both professional architects and amateurs of fine arts. Analysing architecture pattern books is directly connected with the question how the solutions they proposed were applied in the building practice, which is not an easy one to answer for art historians. On the one hand, an even superficial acquaintance with historical buildings proves that the whole history of art, especially in the modern period, has been based on imitating ready patterns, which was a major principle both in training and in architects’ professional career. On the other hand, those models have been not been literally copied but served as inspiration for making new designs. Therefore, conclusions cannot be decisive and must remain hypothetical. It can rarely be proved on the basis of sources that an architect really ever saw the building that a researcher is inclined to consider as his inspiration or had a book with its picture in his library. In most cases the inspiration came from several sources and the design was a coalescence of many motifs. In such situations the research challenge is even greater and the researcher’s conclusions still less certain.


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Jak cytować

Mączyński, R. (2014). Wzorniki architektoniczne doby klasycyzmu : rozważania nad prospektywnym charakterem proponowanych rozwiązań. Kwartalnik Historii Kultury Materialnej, 62(4), 501–526. Pobrano z https://journals.iaepan.pl/khkm/article/view/805



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